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Transcript of ANCIENT GREECE
Alexander the Great created an empire that in its height covered territories in 3 continents and gave way to the birth of the Hellenistic culture.
Types of government:
Main idea: The growth of city-states in Greece led to the development of different political systems.
CITY STATES IN GREECE
Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea
MAIN IDEA: The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures.
• Mycenaeans—Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000 B.C.
• Took their name from their leading city, Mycenae
• Mycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from 1600–1100 B.C.
Contact with Minoans:
• After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture
The Trojan War:
• Trojan War—fought by Mycenaeans against city of Troy in 1200s B.C.
• Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found
Dorians Replace Mycenaeans:
• Mycenaean civilization collapses around 1200 B.C.
• Dorians—possibly relatives of Bronze Age Greeks—move into Greece
• Less advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no written records
MYCENAEANS AND TROJAN WAR
Greeks practiced polytheism ( from greek: poly= many + theos= gods).
Greeks sought to understand mysteries of life through myths , that is through traditional stories about gods, demigods, heroes and mere humans.
They believed in numerous gods and demigods which possesed human qualities and emotions, such as love, hatred jealousy and lust. These deities weren’t distant at all: instead they interfered with human life, many times serving their own purposes.
Critical Approach to the Greco-Persian Wars:
Main idea: The history and culture of classical Greece has a significant impact on the modern world.
Objective: To explain how Greek civilization came to be, developed and declined, while also understanding its legacy.
• Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people live.
• Includes mainland and about 2,000 islands.
• Proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade.
• Mountains slow travel, divide land into isolated regions.
• Lack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for colonies.
Complete pages 43 and 44 from your workbook
Mycenaean, Trojan War, Dorian, Homer, Epic, Myth
What do you know about Greece?
Epics of Homer
• Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer—a blind storyteller.
—a narrative poem about heroic deeds.
• Homer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic ideal
Paste the copy of the myth of "Eros and Psyche" that was given to you and read it.
In pairs answer the following questions in a separate piece of paper.
1) Who are the three main characters in the story? (10 pts.)
2) Which other gods/goddesses appear in the myth? (10 pts.)
3) How many times did Psyche got help from animals and plants? (10 pts.)
4) What did Apollo told Psyche's father she would marry? (10 pts.)
5) Why did Venus get angry at Psyche? (10 pts.)
6) Mention one task Venus made Psyche perform. (10 pts.)
7) Why did Venus finally supported his son's marriage to Psyche? (10 pts.)
8) What's the name of the river Psyche needs to collect water from.
9) What do you think this myth represents? What is the message it tries to give? (20 pts).
By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or
, is the most extended type of political formation in Greece.
A polis is a city and its surrounding villages.
• Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000.
• Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a fortified hilltop.
City-states developed different type of government according to their conditions and needs:
Athens vs. Sparta-
I give you my name and you do this? You guys suck.
The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 b.c. and lasted until 449 b.c.
Persian conquest of Anatolia (542 b.c.):
Ionians revolted and the Greeks sent help.
Battle of Marathon (490 b.c.):
Fought between 25,000 Persians and 10,000 Athenians arranged in phalanxes. Athenians won.
480 b.c: New Persian invasion to Greece; Greeks were very divided. -->
Battle of Thermopylae
: 7,000 Greeks (including 300 Spartans) hold Xerxes' army for 3 days. Later, the Spartans stayed and let the other retire. They all died, but this united the Greeks.
Battle of Salamis (480 b.c.):
After Thermopylae, Athenians decide that the better way to protect the city is at the sea. They fight in a channel near Samalis, where their smaller ships (armed with battering rams) sink 1/3 of Xerxes' fleet.
: Alliance of Greek city-states who continued fighting against the Persians for several years, until they left Greece.
* Pants are for barbarians.*
Greco-Persian Wars Consequences:
• New self-confidence in Greece due to victory.
• Athens emerges as leader of Delian League.
• Athens controls the league by using force against opponents.
• League members essentially become provinces of Athenian empire.
• Stage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens = ATHENIAN GOLDEN AGE.
Yay for us :D!!!
Democracy and Athens' Golden Age:
Democratic principles and classical culture flourish in Athens during its Golden Age.
Pericles, the Delian League and the foundation of an Empire:
Golden Age of Athens:
Period of time of about 50 years (471 to 431 b.c.) in which Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning.
Golden Age of Athens:
Pericles (495-429 b.c.) Athens' leader: 461-429 bc.
Architecture and sculpture:
Classical Art Values:
Just like now: IDEAL BEAUTY, not REALISM.
Pericles as Leader:
Skillful politician, inspiring speaker, respected general
Dominates life in Athens from 461 to 429 B.C.
Had 3 main goals:
Hold and strengthen the Empire:
Takes over Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian fleet.
Strengthen Athenian Democracy:
Hires more public officials; establishes direct democracy definitely.
Glorify and beautify Athens
: Buys expensive materials (ivory, gold, marble) and pays architects, artist and workers.
Drama and History:
Invention of drama and construction of the first theaters. To please the gods and express civil pride.
Tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles & Euripides).
Creation of the first books to be considered historical accounts.
• 431 B.C. city-states Sparta and Athens at war—Peloponnesian War
• Sparta has better army and better location - Athens has better navy.
• Plague strikes Athens in 430 B.C., kills many—including Pericles
• Sparta and Athens sign truce in 421 B.C.
Sparta Gains Victory
• 415 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracruse (one of Sparta's wealthiest allies); is defeated in 413 B.C.
• Athens and allies surrender to Sparta in 404 B.C. = LOST POWER, WEALTH
Previous conditions to Alexander's success:
Kingdom of mountain villages (NOT city-states) north of Greece.
King Philip II—ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling Greece.
Macedonians consider themselves Greek; rest of Greece does not.
Philip creates well-trained professional army then invades Greece
Severely weakened after the Peloponnesian War = Rapid decline in military and economic power.
Impossibility to unite against the threat of Macedonia until it was to late.
338 b.c. Battle of Chaeronea = Macedonia Victory = END OF GREECE'S INDEPENDENCE.
Alexander’s Early Life
• Tutored by Aristotle + Macedonian military training. Considered himself a Greek and acted as such.
Invasion of Persia
• 334 B.C. Alexander invades Persia; quick victory at Granicus River.
• Darius III—king of Persia, assembles army of 50,000–75,000 men .
• Alexander defeats Persians again, attacks Darius directly and forces him to flee.
Conquering the Persian Empire
• Alexander marches into Egypt, crowned pharaoh in 332 B.C.
• At Gaugamela in Mesopotamia, Alexander defeats Persians again. Darius fled and was finally killed by one of his allies.
• Alexander captures cities of Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis. = Persepolis, the Persian capital, burned to the ground.
• Destruction of Persepolis= signal total destruction of Persian Empire.
Alexander in India
• Alexander fights his way across the deserts of Central Asia to India.
• Alexander conquers Indus Valley area in 326 B.C. Reluctantly returns to Babylon after his army begs him to after 11 years of fighting. Dies in 323 B.C..
• Alexander merged Greek and Persian cultures; His empire, although short-lived allowed the expansion and flowering of a new culture = HELLENISTIC CULTURE (Greek+Persian+Egyptian+Indian)
• Empire becomes three kingdoms:
(1) Macedonia, Greek city-states;
(3) old Persia, also known as Seleucid kingdom
336 B.C. King Philip is murdered = Alexander becomes king of Macedonia (20 years old).
The Spread of Hellenistic Culture.
Hellenistic culture - a blend of Greek and other influences- flourished throughout Greece, Egypt and Asia.
Hellenistic culture and Egyptian Alexandria:
Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria
Result of Alexander’s policies—a new vibrant culture
Hellenistic culture—Greek blended with Egyptian, Persian, Indian.
Trade and Cultural Diversity
New cities created by Alexander that served as administrative centers and outpost of Greek culture.
Alexandria—Egyptian city becomes center of Hellenistic civilization.
Shared language that allowed communication through three continents.
Lighthouse, called the Pharos, stands over 350 feet tall.
Museum contains art galleries, a zoo, botanical gardens, dining hall.
Library holds masterpieces of ancient literature; supports scholars.
Science and technology:
Hellenistic scholars preserved Greek and Egyptian learning in sciences.
Astronomy: Aristarchus of Samus & Eratosthenes.
Concerned with how people should live their lives.
Like science, sculpture flourished during the Hellenistic Age.
Hellenistic sculpture moved away from harmonic idealized balance and bodies to more NATURAL, PASSIONATE and ORDINARY WORKS.