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Temperance in the 1800s
Transcript of Temperance in the 1800s
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1054.html What is Temperance? During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Temperance movement was an organized effort that pressed for complete abstinence from the consumption of alochol. Second Great Awakening created a widespread religious fervor - inspired people to improve society. During the reform era So common, in fact, that it was normal for physical laborers to drink while they worked. Some were even paid with alcohol along with money. Considered healthier to drink distilled or fermented beverages rather than water, which was usually contaminated The Reverand Increase Mather, an influential puritan priest, thought of it as faulty if people didn't take advantage of the use of alcohol. According to him, alcohol was a "good creature of God" Women and children were mostly effected. Having to endure the reprucussions of the drunken men in their family Alcohol was blamed for much of the disorder in society - crime, health, and an increase of poverty in the states Drinking caused health issues like: anemia, cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, depression, seizures, high blood pressure, and nerve damage Individuals consumed 7.1 gallons of alcohol annually in the 1830s Artical in Democratic Review (May 1852) suggested that: "If the Declaration of Independance does not avail to save the contents of our stomachs and bladders from chemical analysis and legislative discussion, it is full time to make another declaration that shall mean something." Religious groups like, Evangelical and other Protestant churches, and the Quakers searched for solutions to the alcoholism disputes in America by creating reforms. Believed in a "Christian nation." 6,000 local temperance groups in many states were up and running by the 1830s. Thomas Jefferson, Anthony Benezet (a popular Quaker reformer), and Benjamin Rush (the surgeon general of the Continental Army and a signer of the Declaration of Independence) called for temperance as the solution. Starting of the 19th century people started to encourage less drinking and in the 1820’s advocates arose for the complete abstinence of alcohol The term “alcoholics” did not exist at the time, so people referred to them as “drunkards” Those who chose not to drink were part of the "Cold Water Army" New York (1808)
Massachusetts (1813) The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance (1826) Most original temperance societies had religious affiliations At the evangelical American Temperance Society's height, one out of every ten Americans was a member First Washingtonian Temperance Society was established in Baltimore in 1840 Named for George Washington and his intentions on helping the working class drunkards Members of society took pledge to temperance Converted “drunkards” to teetotalism (abstinence to alcohol) Washington’s Societies were active in Boston, Baltimore, New York, and other areas in the Northeast. 1851- the Society had distributed nearly 5 million temperance pamphlets Propaganda and pamphlets were essential in “anti-liquor crusade” Logos- appeal to logic (statistics, facts, scientific evidence, other provable forms of information) VS Pathos- appeal to emotion (morals, values) Scientific pamphlets, religious pamphlets, posters, children's pamphlets and songs and poems. "Do you want to be efficient?" "Do you want to be powerful?" and "Do you want a better rating?" Posters described alcohol as the source of individual and social issues Children pamphlets: present dilemma where temperance is the solution In 1840 alcohol became known as, "the root of all evil" instead of “a good creation of God” Barrels were often used to represent the problems and issues that resulted from alcohol. The politcal cartoon to the left is from 1820, and a good example of this. First statewide success was in Maine when they passed a law for prohibition on June 2nd 1851 Fundamental to the concept of individual choice and responsibility Temperance in 1800s encouraged women like Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton to stand up and promote temperance in the late 1800’s. http://faculty.headroyce.org