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Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

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Lainey Molin

on 1 September 2016

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Transcript of Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Characteristics of Life
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Homeostasis - maintenance of relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes

Introduction to
Anatomy & Physiology

Negative Feedback
The response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus

Positive Feedback
response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus
may exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect
usually controls infrequent events
Anatomy - the study of structure
Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional, surface, and systemic anatomy)
Microscopic (e.g., cytology and histology)
Developmental (e.g., embryology)
Physiology - the study of function
Subdivisions are based on organ systems (e.g., renal or cardiovascular physiology)

Metabolism – sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur within the body

Dynamic Equilibrium!
continuous monitoring and regulation of many factors
nervous and endocrine systems accomplish the communication via nerve impulses and hormones

monitors the environment
responds to stimuli (changes in controlled variables)

Receptor (sensor)
receives output from control center
provides the means to respond
response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)

Control Center
determines the set point at which the variable is maintained
receives input from receptor
determines appropriate response

Afferent Pathway
Efferent Pathway
Nervous Mechanism
Endocrine Mechanism
What happens if there's a homeostatic disturbance?
Axial vs. Appendicular Skeletons
Head, Neck, & Trunk
Body Cavities
Standard Anatomical Position
Body erect
Feet slightly apart
Palms facing forward
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure
Toward the front
Toward the back
Relative Positions
Closer to the midline
Toward the side, away from the midline
Closer to a point of attachment
Farther from a point of attachment
Near the surface
Farther from the surface
Sagittal Plane
Divides body vertically into right and left parts
Midsagittal Plane
Parasagittal Plane
Transverse Plane
Divides body into superior and inferior portions
Frontal (Coronal) Plane
Divides body into anterior and posterior portions
Full transcript