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The Layers of Earth

An education resource for Metropolitan Library public art sculptures by Solomon Bassoff of Faducci, LLC. (2012). Learn about Earth, from the core to the moon.

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Transcript of The Layers of Earth

northwest library troposphere mesosphere thermosphere exosphere Learn about methodology for investigating Earth's interior: core mantle crust stratosphere tropopause lower upper inner outer about the art about the inner core about the art about the outer core about the art: location art about the lower mantle about the upper mantle about the troposphere about the tropopause about the stratosphere about the mesosphere about the thermosphere about the exosphere environmental
science science historical science history language arts math relevant places The inner core is the very most central part of earth, and also the first interior structure identified. It is located 3000 miles below the
surface.. The temperature of the core is estimated to be 9,800 degrees Fahrenheit, or about the same temperature as the sun. The diameter of the inner core is 758 miles, or roughly the driving distance from Oklahoma City to Chicago. Based on the way certain earthquake waves are unable to pass through, the inner core is believed to be solid, and composed of iron, nickel, and possibly some precious metals. oklahoma oil The outer core is composed of liquid iron and nickel. responsible for generating Earth's magnetic field. This liquid moves about turbulently, and is Without the magnetic field, which extends thousands atmosphere and make life on earth impossible. of miles into space, solar winds could strip away our 1 1. core. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved July 27, 2012, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/core works cited The Patience S. Latting Northwest Library, designed by architecture firms LWPB and richärd+bauer, pays tribute to Oklahoma 's iconic landscape, its rich agricultural history, and its status as the nation's fifth-largest producer of crude oil . core, n: the central, innermost, or most essential part of anything. The art is at the core of this resource, but you have to know its surroundings to understand it fully. The Patience S. Latting Northwest Library is part of the Metropolitan Library System; it opened in May 2012. Details like oil derrick skylights, route 66 signage, the cedar plank ceiling, and incredible vistas underscore a deep connection to all that makes Oklahoma wonderful. Now we can go to the very most central part: about the art! This solid layer of earth is the largest continuous region of the earth, and is believed to be composed of large amounts of silicon, magnesium, and oxygen. This region is under tremendous pressure and heat. Very little else is known about the mantle because it cannot be directly observed. http://bit.ly/WWNuBa The upper mantle has two main zones. The asthenosphere is the deep lower zone; it is highly viscous due to temperature and pressure. This layer slowly flows in convection circles. core asthenosphere lithosphere The lithosphere is the cooler upper zone, consisting of the top of the mantle and the crust. It is rigid and brittle, so it breaks apart more easily than the asthenosphere. These broken sections form tectonic plates. subduction, n: pushed another plate. below of a plate is when the edge down The cooler plate material is brought deep within the earth, then pushed back up as it warms. As the plates separate, new material comes up to fill in the gap. mantle, n: anything that covers completely or envelops Just like the earth recycles land, artists can recycle old materials into art. 2. mantle. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mantle Earth's mantle covers the core. Mosaic is a type of art that covers another surface using small stones or pieces of glass. 2 This outermost layer is the thinnest of all, making up < 1% of the earth's total volume. The continental crust is an average 20 to 30 miles thick, whereas the oceanic crust is typically 3 to 6 miles. The crust 'floats' on the mantle. Temperature increases as depth increases. The crust is made up of incompatible elements, or basically mantle rejects. oceanic crust continental crust magma volcano about the crust subduction http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Plates_tect2_en.svg tectonic plates Internal Processes Interactives: http://bit.ly/WWO3uP 1. Learner Interactives: Dynamic Earth 2. Earthguide Online Classroom http://bit.ly/WWO7uu The crust replenishes itself with material brought up from the mantle. But many resources located on the surface of the earth are not renewing at the rate humans consume them, meaning the earth will not be able to sustain life indefinitely unless something is changed. atm of part low it's he os contains ma at the of 80% er os and 99% of water vapor est the the p re m ph e's ss o F Altitude : mo la this in occ we our of st er at h urs er y ... the faducci sculptures Like a fence marks the boundary between your yard and the neighbor's yard, the tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Because of differences in temperature, this layer reaches a height of 5.5-7.4 miles at the poles, and a height of 9.9-10.5 miles at the equator. In the layer above the tropopause, air gets warmer as height increases. In the layer below the tropopause, air gets cooler as height increases. Most of the water in the atmosphere is located below this layer. Most mixing of the air from turbulence caused by the earth's surface, happens in the troposphere and tropopause. Pilots try to fly just above this layer. Pilots fly in the stratosphere so they can be above the hard weather of the troposphere. Also, due to lower temperatures and air density, planes get better fuel burn. This allows the plane to travel longer and farther. The 'ozone layer,' or the highest concentration of ozone molecules, is located within the stratosphere. UV radiation breaks down oxygen molecules into single atoms... Chlorine atoms can get into the atmosphere when we use chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. CFCs are commonly used as propellants in aerosol cans. A single CFC molecule can take as long as 80 years to disappear from the stratosphere. Even though international regulations are now cutting back on use of CFC's, our atmosphere will continue to be affected by them for many more decades. o F Altitude : This means less ozone is formed. O O radiation oxygen (o ) molecule O O O O O O O O O which can then reform into ozone. ozone molecules When other atoms are present, like chlorine, the oxygen may latch on to it instead. O O O Cl O molecule 2 Chlorine Monoxide (ClO) 2 Ozone is important because it absorbs harmful UV rays. O O O Cl O Cl O O O O O O O Cl O O O Chlorine Monoxide Ozone Oxygen molecule Oklahoma's famous sunsets take place within the troposphere. Like the tropopause is the border where the troposphere and stratosphere meet, there are areas where science and history meet. The stratosphere was a frontier we met and conquered in the 20th century. Another frontier, the West, was the focus of Americans during the 19th century. this 20 miles. extends and surface from the 29 miles begins layer o F Altitude : the winds west east- str has me re he sp so ong most
layer In Greek mythology, wind was anthropomorphized to be a god called Aeolus. 5 F -22 ow bel res atu per tem ch rea can re he sp so me the o A 88 108 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 FM AM 235 335 435 535 635 735 this layer begins 50 miles above the surface and extends to 310 miles above. o F Altitude : Despite intense temperatures, the thermosphere feels cool. There is so much space between gas atoms that they cannot transmit heat. High levels of solar radiation are absorbed in the thermosphere, resulting in a temperature that increases as altitude increases. Based on the amount of solar activity, temperatures can reach 2730 degrees Fahrenheit. The thermosphere contains the ionosphere, an area with a high concentration of electrically charged atoms, or ions. This charge enable radio waves transmitted from a tower to refract, or be bounced back down, to be received by your radio. the international space station is located in the middle of the thermosphere, usually 200-240 miles above the surface of Earth. Radio wave refraction occurs at an angle. the exosphere is sometimes considered a part of space, since there is no clear boundary. particle collisions are so rare that some are able to escape earth's gravitational pull tem the exosphere ends 620 miles above Earth's surface, halfway to the moon. alt of re sa the sta re atu per ys me ess rdl ga de itu Do you want to learn even more about the Faducci sculptures by visiting other places in Oklahoma? Oklahoma is located above the Mid-Continent Region oil reserve, which also includes states like Kansas, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico. Early inhabitants of Oklahoma discovered oil and used it as medicine for
themselves and their animals. As time progressed, it was realized these 'health spas' were actually aboveground indicators of oil reserves. Oil wells were drilled, and several companies were formed, but the oil industry didn't take off until 1899 when a railroad connected Bartlesville to Neodesha, KS. This created a viable market for the large amounts of oil that were being discovered. The Oklahoma Oil Boom era lasted until 1950, when reserves finally began to deplete. Another boom came in the 1970s, though by 1982, oil production fell again. As oil companies began focusing on overseas production, have moved out of Oklahoma. Use these interactive websites to learn more about energy discovery, production, and use. Adventures in Energy is an in-depth look at oil production that could be used for a unit or easily broken into sections to highlight specific areas. http://bit.ly/WUOh5w Classroom Energy! provides numerous lessons for grades K-12. Pictured above is an interactive drilling game. http://bit.ly/WUOEwU 3 4 3. Adventures in Energy, (2012). American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved August 21, 2012, from http://www.adventuresinenergy.org/index.html. 4. Classroom Energy! (2012). American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved August 21, 2012, from http://www.classroom-energy.org/index.html. king of the lizard eaters the raccoon lucille mulhall and wall-e This lizard can reach a
foot in length. It prefers hot
temperatures. The collared
lizard is known for its ability
to run on its hind legs.
While male lizards, like this one, have brightly colored bodies and light brown heads, females are entirely light brown. the collared lizard state fossil state amphibian state flying mammal state insect state bird state butterfly The Saurophaganax was a late Jurassic predator. Remains were first discovered in the panhandle of Oklahoma. In Faducci's representation, the dinosaur wears red tennis shoes. A line of small iridescent stones trace its spine. Books featuring representations of other state symbols are falling from its claws. Lucille Mulhall is said to be America's first cowgirl. Born in St. Louis but raised in Oklahoma, she went on to compete in roping and riding competitions against men. She is holding books written by Oklahoma authors, including Joy Harjo and S.E. Hinton.

Wall-e is a dog that survived euthanasia.

They represent the hardiness and courage of Oklahoma. state furbearer state reptile 5. upcycle. (April 2010). Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved August 21, 2012, from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/upcycle 6. Radical Upcycled iMac Aquariums. (April 3, 2012). Katie Hosmer, MyModernMetropolis. Retrieved from http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/jake-harms-imac-aquariums, image from http://api.ning.com/files/4c0W6laACQSiWrlyXwLknHGjTBoP80mvMuGsP4bbuXKmzqXY4BVchqMqYkU*ONx0Ebl0kU18u1sNSVkZl3Q2aMndqcNsnqky/JakeHarms1.jpg.
iMacquarium. (n.d.). Jake Harms. 7. Quiltsurround. (2009). Greely Myatt. Memphis, TN. Photo credit: Joel T. Rose. Retrieved August 21, 2012 from http://www.jeneanmorrison.net/blog/quiltsurround-by-greely-myatt.html 8. Urban Street Art - Upcycled Bears Created With Old Fur Coats (3 pics + video). (October 30, 2009). Eugene, MyModernMetropolis. Retrieved from http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/urban-street-art-upcycled.
art: (title unknown). (n.d.). Neozoon. 9. Glowing Giant Fish Made of Discarded Plastic Bottles. (June 22, 2012). Katie Hosmer. MyModernMetropolis. Retrieved from http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/giant-fish-sculpture-un-conference-on-sustainable-development. Images from Rio+20 flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/riotur/sets/72157630122474492/with/7405262726/ 10. Carved Book Landscapes by Guy Laramee. (December 22, 2011). Christopher, ThisIsColossal. Retrieved from http://www.thisiscolossal.com/2011/12/carved-book-landscapes-by-guy-laramee/. [10 b] Quote from artist found from same source.
Biblios. (date unknown). Guy Laramee. Retrieved from http://guylaramee.com/index.php?/biblios/text-1/. 11. Library Desk Made from Recycled Books (4 pics). (September 14, 2010.) Eugene. MyModernMetropolis. Retrieved from http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/library-desk-made-from. Photo credit: Ellen Forsythe. 12. 1000 Upcycled Paper Planes. (July 1, 2011). Alyssa Anda. MyModernMetropolis. Retrieved from http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/1000-upcycled-paper-planes. Photo credit: Jena Lacomis Garcia 13. Renewable Energy on the Public Lands: POWERing the Future. (Apr 18, 2012) Bureau of Land Management Division of Education, Interpretation, and Partnerships. Retrived on 8/29/2012 from http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/wo/Law_Enforcement/nlcs/education__interpretation/Energy_Media.Par.94032.File.dat/Renewable_Energy_on_the_Public_Lands_Article.pdf (core to crust) 14. Green Revolution. (May 10, 2010). National Science Foundation. Retrieved on 8/29/2012 from http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/greenrevolution/index.jsp 15. Energyville. (n.d.) Chevron, The Economist Group. Retrieved on 8/29/2012 from www.energyville.com convection circle: works cited (troposphere to exosphere) 16. science. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved September 04, 2012, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/science 17. history. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved September 04, 2012, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/history 18. Dinosaurs: Virtual Dinosaur Dig. (n.d.). Smithsonian Natural Museum of Natural History. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://paleobiology.si.edu/dinosaurs/interactives/dig/main.html. 19. Dinosaur Central- DinoViewer. (n.d.). Discovery. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://dsc.discovery.com/dinosaurs/dinosaur-games/dinosaur-viewer/dinosaur-viewer.html 20. Dino Trackers! April 5, 2012. University of Arkansas. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://www.youtube.com/watch/?v=fFbZ7_n9-Gw. 21. Fossils, Rocks, and Time. Aug 14, 1997. USGS. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/fossils/contents.html 22. Geologic Time: The Story of a Changing Earth. (n.d.). Smithsonian Natural Museum of Natural History. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://paleobiology.si.edu/geotime/main/ 23. Exploring Time and Space. (n.d.). The Paleontology Portal. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://www.paleoportal.org/index.php?globalnav=time_space 24. Cowboys. (2012). The History Channel website. Retrieved 12:20, September 5, 2012, from http://www.history.com/topics/cowboys. 25. Cattle Trails (map). (n.d.). Retrieved on September 5, 2012 from http://theomahaproject.org/module_display.php?mod_id=102&review=yes and http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/31/32716/figures/DIVI350.jpg. 26. Erwin E. Smith: Teaching Guide - Cowboy Life. (n.d.). Amon Carter Museum. Retrieved on September 5, 2012 from http://www.cartermuseum.org/edu_guides/smith/cowboylife/clothing.htm. 27. Cowboys + Fine Art (search results). (n.d.). Art.com website. Retrieved on September 5, 2012 from http://www.art.com/gallery/id--b19051-c23944/cowboys-fine-art-prints.htm?ui=4831054BF84243C1ABAA1F66C6ACA41E&SSK=Cowboys 28. Art Across the Curriculum - The Texas Cowboy: Myth and Reality. (n.d.). The University of Texas at Austin and the Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art. Retrieved on September 5, 2012 from http://blantonmuseum.org/elearning/aac/teacher/cowboy/cowboy_student.html. 29. Stampede. 1908. Frederic Remington. Oil on canvas. Gilcrease Museum. Image retrieved from http://americanwestreview.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/remington-thestampede8001.jpg. 30. Oklahoma!: Oh, What a Beautiful Morning!. 1955. Producer: Arthur Hornblow Jr, Director: Fred Zinneman. United States: Magna Theater Corporation. Video retrieved on September 5, 2012 from user 'warverve' http://youtu.be/kp5HCDGJsvM, 31. personification. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved September 05, 2012, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/personification 32. Angle. (n.d.). Math Open Reference. Retrieved on September 11, 2012 from http://www.mathopenref.com/angle.html. incorporate
art: This lesson connects with 'King of the Lizard Eaters,' the largest of the Faducci sculptures. How does the sculpture differ from how a real Saurophaganax maximus likely appeared? The raccoon hangs out on the children's patio. It wears a brightly colored backpack. The artist made these artworks by first creating a steel frame outline. This was covered in concrete. Next, he hand-formed small pieces of concrete to make the individual scales/etc, which were then placed on the concrete form. Artist: Solomon Bassoff - Faducci LLC
Date: 2012
Media: concrete, glass, stainless steel
Location: Northwest Library, Oklahoma City, OK patience s. latting layers of earth
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