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Play Styles

GAM4000 Presentation (2015/16)
by

Chris Bateman

on 24 September 2015

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Transcript of Play Styles

Ekman, Paul (2003).
Emotions Revealed
, Henry Holt and Company.
by Chris Bateman
Path Two: The Emotions of Play
Click on a Path to follow it
The Diversity of Play Styles
Affect and Microexpressions
Path Three: Defining 'Game'
Implicit Game Aesthetics
Path One: BrainHex
Play Styles
Seeker
Survivor
Daredevil
Mastermind
Conqueror
Achiever
Socialiser
Fear
Disgust
Curiosity
Wonder
Amusement
Satisfaction
Boredom
Frustration
(Anger)
Triumph
(Fiero)
Confusion
Triumph
(Fiero)
Excitement
Mastermind
Achiever
Socialiser
Daredevil
Survivor
Conqueror
Seeker
Association Areas
Seeker
Fear Centre
Survivor
Adrenal Glands
Daredevil
Adrenal Glands
Conqueror
Social Centre
Socialiser
Decision Centre
Mastermind
Oxytocin
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin)
Norepinephrine
Dopamine
Achiever
Pleasure Centre
Happy
Surprise
Sadness
Disgust
Anger
Contempt
Fear
Bateman, Chris and Boon, Richard (2005).
21st Century Game Design
, Boston, MA: Charles River Media.
Lazzaro, Nicole (2009). “Understand Emotions” in
Beyond Game Design: Nine Steps Towards Creating Better Videogames
, Chris Bateman (ed.), Tampa, FL: Thompson.
Ekman, P. (1992). “An Argument for Basic Emotions.”
Cognition and Emotion
, vol. 6 no. 3/4, pp. 169–200.
"Bateman and Boon (2005) state..."
"The Four Fun Keys model (Lazzaro 2009, p50) claims..."
"...arguing for basic emotions (Ekman 1992)."
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(7)
(5)
(6)
Persson, Markus "Notch" (2011).
Minecraft
[PC Game], Stockholm: Mojang AB.
DMA Design (1997).
Grand Theft Auto
[Multiformat Videogame], New York, NY: BMG Interactive.
Iwatani, Toru (1980).
Pac-man

[Arcade Game]
, Tokyo: Namco.
"
Pac-man
(Iwatani, 1980) was..."
"...with
Minecraft
(Persson, 2011) we see..."
"...in
Grand Theft Auto
(DMA, 1997)..."
Okami (Clover Studio, 2006)
Resident Evil Zero (Capcom Production Studio 3, 2002)
Burnout Paradise (Criterion, 2008)
Age of Empires (Ensemble, 1997)
Super Smash Bros. Melee (HAL Laboratory, 2001)
Left 4 Dead (Turtle Rock, 2008)
Pokémon Platinum (Game Freak, 2008)
2005
2009
2011
Player Satisfaction Models
Emotions and Microexpressions
Your Brain on Games
Defining 'Game'
Crawford's Taxonomy of Creative Expression (1984/2003)
Agency aesthetic
Victory aesthetic
Conflict aesthetic
“a good game is a series of interesting choices”
- Sid Meier
Decision aesthetic
"A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal."
- Greg Costikyan
(Victory aesthetic)
(Conflict aesthetic)
Decision aesthetic
Diplomacy
Socialisation
'Colour'
Simulation
Position Identification
Role-playing
Variety of Encounter
Narrative Tension
What can "Strengthen games"?
Social Aesthetic
Imaginative Aesthetic
Uncertainty Aesthetic
"Games are puzzles to solve, just like everything else we encounter in life [and] serve as very fundamental and powerful learning tools."
- Raph Koster
1994
2005
Problem aesthetic
Learning aesthetic
(Decision Aesthetic)
"Playing a game is the act of solving statistically varied challenge situations presented by an opponent who may or may not be algorithmic within a framework that is a defined systemic model."
- Raph Koster
2012
System aesthetic
(Victory aesthetic)
(Conflict aesthetic)
Crawford, Chris (2003).
Chris Crawford on Game Design
,
Indianapolis, IN: New Riders..
Costikyan, Greg (1994). “I Have No Words and I Must Design”,
Interactive Fantasy
, no. 2.
Koster, Raph (2005).
A Theory of Fun for Game Design
. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press.
Koster, Raph (2012). “‘X’ isn’t a game!”
Raph Koster's Website
[online], http://www.raphkoster.com/2012/03/13/x-isnt-a-game/ (Accessed 17 April 2012).
Costikyan, Greg (1994). “I Have No Words and I Must Design”,
Interactive Fantasy
, no. 2.
"Games are not mathematical systems. They are systems that always have a human being, full of desires, excitement and immense cleverness, sitting smack dab in the center. To accurately describe games, we need a working psychological model of the player."
- Dan Cook
2007
"Our player model is simple: The player is entity that is driven, consciously or subconsciously, to learn new skills high in perceived value. They gain pleasure from successfully acquiring skills."
- Dan Cook
Cook, Dan (2007). “The Chemistry of Game Design”.
Gamasutra
[online], http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/129948/the_chemistry_of_game_design.php (Accessed 17 April 2012).
(Learning aesthetic)
(System aesthetic)
Curiosity aesthetic
Biederman, Irving and Vessel, Edward A. (2006). “Perceptual Pleasure and the Brain.”
American Scientist
, no. 94 (May-June), pp. 247-253.
"...all games share four defining traits: a
goal
,
rules
, a
feedback system
, and
voluntary participation
."
- Jane McGonigal
"...The
feedback system
tells players how close they are to achieving the goal."
- Jane McGonigal
"...Real-time feedback serves as a promise to the players that the goal is definitely achievable, and it provides motivation to keep playing."
- Jane McGonigal
"...What’s key here? Goals. Opposition. Resource management. Information."
- Greg Costikyan
Games involve...
Rules
Fiction
(Victory aesthetic) but no (Conflict aesthetic)!
Victory
aesthetic

Problem
aesthetic

Social
aesthetic

Imaginative
aesthetic

Reward
aesthetic

Uncertainty
aesthetic

(+conflict)
(+decision, systems,
learning)
(+agency, curiosity)
(+voluntary, playful)
Horror
aesthetic?

McGonigal, Jane (2011).
Reality is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World
, London: J. Cape.
Goal:
“to stack falling puzzle pieces, leaving as few gaps as possible in between them”
"As you successfully lock in
Tetris
puzzle pieces, you get three kinds of feedback:
visual
– you can see row after row of pieces disappearing with a satisfying poof;
quantitative
– a prominently displayed score constantly ticks upwards; and
qualitative
you experience a steady increase in how challenging the game feels."
- Jane McGonigal
= Instructions for play
Pajitnov, Alexey (1984).
Tetris
[E60 Videogame].
Atari (1988).
Tetris
[Arcade Game], Los Angeles, CA: Atari Games
Bullet-Proof Software (1989).
Tetris
[Game Boy Game], Kyoto: Nintendo
Reward aesthetic
"...to play a game is to engage in activity directed towards bringing about a specific state of affairs,
using only means permitted by specific rules,
where the means permitted by the rules are more limited in scope than they would be in the absence of rules,
and where the sole reason for accepting such limitation is to make possible such activity."
- Bernard Suits
"…playing a game is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles."
- Bernard Suits
Lusory Attitude
Suits, Bernard (1966). “What is a Game?”
Philosophy of Science
, vol. 34, no. 2 (June), pp. 148:156.
Suits, Bernard (1978).
The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia
, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.
(Victory aesthetic)
without
(Conflict aesthetic)
Caillois: everything that constitutes play is...
free (non-obligatory)
separated by limits specified in advance
uncertain
unproductive
governed by rules
entails make-believe
Caillois, Roger (1962).
Man, Play and Game
s
. Translated by Barash, Meyer, London: Thames & Hudson.
1958
1966/78
Voluntary aesthetic
Uncertainty aesthetic
2007/09
Malaby, Thomas M. (2007). “Beyond Play: A New Approach to Games”,
Games and Cultur
e
, vol. 2, no. 2, pp 95-113.
Malaby, Thomas M. (2009). “Anthropology and Play: The Contours of Playful Experience”,
New Literary History
, vol. 40, no. 1, pp 205-218.
"A game is a semibounded and socially legitimate domain of contrived contingency that generates interpretable outcomes."
- Thomas Malaby
“play [is ]a dispositional stance toward the indeterminate”.
- Thomas Malaby
Play as disposition
Playful aesthetic
(Uncertainty aesthetic)
Anthropology of Play
"We do assume a unity in such concepts [as Art and Games], and we are not silly to do so, because they all deal with human needs, which certainly do have a structure."
- Mary Midgley
1974
66. Consider for example the proceedings that we call "games"...[to] look and see whether there is anything common to all...
67. ...I can think of no better expression to characterize these similarities than "family resemblances"... And I shall say: "games" form a family.
- Ludwig Wittgenstein
Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1953).
Philosophical Investigations
, translated by Anscombe, G.E.M (1962), New York, NY: Macmillan.
1953
Midgley, Mary (1974). "The Game Game",
Philosophy
, vol. 49, no. 189, pp. 231-253.
Let us presuppose
Bateman, Chris (2015) “Implicit Game Aesthetics”,
Games and Culture
, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 389-411.

Testosterone and Play
Dangerous
to know
Lean
Mean
Puberty
Biology
Health Costs
Bad Dad
Archer, John (1977). "Testosterone and persistence in mice",
Animal Behaviour
, Vol. 25, Part 2 (May ), pp. 479-488.
Andrew, Richard John and Rogers, Lesley J. (1972). “Testosterone, Search Behaviour and Persistence”,
Nature
, vol. 237, no. 5354 (June), pp. 343-346.
BrainHex
Affect:
Affect Display:
Positive Affect:
Negative Affect:
the experience of emotion
Some Definitions
enjoyable mood or emotion
unpleasant mood or emotion
external signs of mood or emotion
Fear
(1)
(2)
(4)
(5)
(3)
(6)
(a)
(b)
(c)
Curiosity
Confusion
Amusement
Anger
Triumph
(Fiero)
(Laughter)
(Interest)
(3) Anger
(4) Amusement
(5) Confusion
(6) Triumph
(1) Fear
(2) Curiosity
(3) Anger
(5) Confusion
(6) Triumph
(2) Curiosity
(3) Anger
(4) Amusement
(5) Confusion
(6) Triumph
Screw Around
Indra Nooyi
35 million units
McGonigal on
Tetris
Conqueror
Mastermind
Achiever
Seeker
Daredevil
Survivor
Socialiser
Zabrak
Bateman, Chris (2014). “Empirical Game Aesthetics” in Marios C. Angelides, Harry Agius (eds.),
IEEE Handbook of Digital Games
, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-IEEE Press, pp. 411-443.
Endomorphin
Schadenfreude
Joy + Contempt
Joy + Disgust
NASCAR Champion Tony Stewart
Who?
Within?
What?
Which pages?
Where from?
When?
Who?
Within?
What?
Which pages?
Where from?
When?
Surname, Forename (Year).
Title
, City: Publisher.
Harvard Reference: Books
Book title in italics
or initial
Surname, Forename (Year). "Title",
Journal
, volume, number, pages.
Harvard Citations: Articles
Article titles in quotes
Developer (Year).
Title

[Format],
City: Publisher.
Harvard Citations: Games
Game title in italics
or Surname, Forename
Harvard
References

Who?
Within?
What?
Which pages?
Where from?
When?
Who?
Within?
What?
Which pages?
Where from?
When?
Surname, Forename
(Year)
Title
City: Publisher
Surname, Forename
(Year)
Journal Title
"Article Title"
Volume, Issue
Page Range
Developer
(Year)
Title
[Format]
City: Publisher
Ekman, Paul (2003).
Emotions Revealed
, New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company.
2010
2014
2015
Bateman, Chris and Boon, Richard (2005).
21st Century Game Design
, Boston, MA: Charles River Media.
Lazzaro, Nicole (2009). “Understand Emotions” in
Beyond Game Design: Nine Steps Towards Creating Better Videogames
, Chris Bateman (ed.), Tampa, FL: Thompson.
Ekman, P. (1992). “An Argument for Basic Emotions.”
Cognition and Emotion
, vol. 6 no. 3/4, pp. 169–200.
"Bateman and Boon (2005) state..."
"The Four Fun Keys model (Lazzaro 2009, p50) claims..."
"...arguing for basic emotions (Ekman 1992)."
Persson, Markus "Notch" (2011).
Minecraft
[PC Game], Stockholm: Mojang AB.
DMA Design (1997).
Grand Theft Auto
[Multiformat Videogame], New York, NY: BMG Interactive.
Iwatani, Toru (1980).
Pac-man

[Arcade Game]
, Tokyo: Namco.
"
Pac-man
(Iwatani, 1980) was..."
"...with
Minecraft
(Persson, 2011) we see..."
"...in
Grand Theft Auto
(DMA, 1997)..."
Who?
Within?
What?
Which pages?
Where from?
When?
Who?
Within?
What?
Which pages?
Where from?
When?
Surname, Forename (Year).
Title
, City: Publisher.
Harvard Reference: Books
Book title in italics
or initial
Surname, Forename (Year). "Title",
Journal
, volume, number, pages.
Harvard Citations: Articles
Article titles in quotes
Developer (Year).
Title

[Format],
City: Publisher.
Harvard Citations: Games
Game title in italics
or Surname, Forename
Harvard
References
Who?
Within?
What?
Which pages?
Where from?
When?
Who?
Within?
What?
Which pages?
Where from?
When?
Surname, Forename
(Year)
Title
City: Publisher
Surname, Forename
(Year)
Journal Title
"Article Title"
Volume, Issue
Page Range
Developer
(Year)
Title
[Format]
City: Publisher
Full transcript