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AP Psych Chapter 9
Transcript of AP Psych Chapter 9
One view of memory... Memory is similar to a computer write to file - encoding
save to disk - storage
read from disk - retrieval Encoding
the processing of information into the memory system
i.e., extracting meaning Storage
the retention of encoded information over time Retrieval
process of getting information out of memory Another view of memory... Atkinson-Shifrin Model the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system (less than a second) Three Stage Processing Model of Memory Example:
the sound of a voice the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system activated memory that holds a few items briefly
magic number: 7 (+/- 2) Example:
the learning or knowledge Example:
the words that were said Working Memory
(a part of short-term memory)
focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information Example:
cramming minutes before a test Encoding Some things we process into memory automatically... Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information
We can also learn automatic processing
reading backwards or upside down Other things require effort... Effortful Processing:
knowledge of history
anything requiring attention and rehearsal (practice) For example...
Try to remember these letters after I read them aloud to you (p. 229 in Resource Manual) Chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units
such as horizontal organization--1776149218121941
often occurs automatically (phone numbers)
use of acronyms
HOMES--Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior
ARITHMETIC--A Rat In Tom’s House Might Eat Tom’s Ice Cream
Now let’s try chunking those same letters… (p. 229 in Resource Manual) In general...
The amount remembered depends upon the time spent learning.
Next-in-line effect: In saying things in a line or circle, poorest memory is for what the person right before you says. (We focus on our own performance.)
Info learned in the hour before sleep is well-remembered (but not info in the last few seconds before sleep overtakes us.)
Info played while you sleep: heard by ears, but not stored in memory.
Spaced study beats cramming. (“Those who learn quickly also forget quickly.”)
encoding of meaning
including meaning of words
encoding of sound
especially sound of words
encoding of picture images Hermann Ebbinghaus decided to study memory scientifically Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables
TUV ZOF GEK WAV
the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2 Spacing Effect
distributed practice yields better long- term retention than massed practice
Serial Position Effect
tendency to recall best the first items and the last items in a list (also called primacy-recency effect)
Storage Other ways to improve encoding:
hierarchies retaining information Iconic memory Echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
also called declarative memory
hippocampus--neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
retention independent of conscious recollection
also called procedural memory
How does storage work? Karl Lashley (1950) - proves memory is stored in various locations in brain
rats learn maze
test memory Synaptic changes
increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation Strong emotions make for stronger memories
some stress hormones boost learning and retention (semantic memory) (episodic memory) Never Forget a Face http://www.pbs.org/saf/1402/video/watchonline.htm Why Memories Last Life without Memory: Clive Wearing http://www.learner.org/resources/series150.html?pop=yes&vodid=465697&pid=1617 processing information Retrieval getting information out Amazing storage skill Eidetic memory
also known as photographic memory
extraordinary memory of details that most of us cannot retain
occurs very rarely
Alexander Luria studied people who could recall lists of 70 letters or digits after glancing at them. They still recalled the lists 15 years later.
Recall Recognition retrieving information without any cues
as on a fill-in-the blank test identifying items previously learned
as on a multiple-choice test
memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material a second time
activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood
memory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues Another way to see this... State-dependent Memory
what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants had their learning reactivated most strongly when retested in the same rather than a different context (Butler & Rovee-Collier, 1989). http://www.pbs.org/saf/1402/video/watchonline.htm Forgetting If memory is limitless and permanent,
why do we forget? 1. We don't encode. Information never enters long-term memory. Ebbinghaus: Initially we forget rapidly; then it levels off with time.
2. We lose it because we don't use it. Decay theory: Information in memory eventually disappears if it is not accessed. 3. We cannot retrieve information. Lack of retrieval cues means we cannot get to the info. 4. Interference Learning some items may interfere with retrieving others. Retroactive Interference:
Forgetting that occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar material stored previously. (retro – old)
Forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently learned material (pro – new). Examples:
You learn this year's locker combination, and now you can't remember last year's.
You memorize your new cell phone number, and now you can't remember the old one. Examples:
You are trying to learn your new locker combination, but when you go to your locker, you only remember last year's.
You just moved to a new address, but when people ask what it is, you give your old address. 5. Forgetting is in our self-interest. Motivated Forgetting: people unknowingly revise memories This is what our friend, Freud, called... Repression
defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Not covered in the textbook: specific forms of amnesia... Anterograde amnesia
Inability to put new information into explicit memory resulting from damage to hippocampus; no new semantic memories are formed.
Memory loss for a segment of the past, usually around the time of an accident or trauma
Memorize the following letters: A G N P Y E X Now memorize these letters: L F T K W M Q Memory Construction http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=5153451n&tag=contentMain;contentBody 60 Minutes: Eyewitness The Memory Mingle! Misinformation Effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event Source Amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution) Confabulation:
“confusion” + “fabrication” = “confabulation” Confabulation is most likely when:
You have thought about the event many times.
The image of the event contains many details.
The event is easy to imagine.
You focus on emotional reactions to the event rather than what actually happened.
When Memory Lies http://www.pbs.org/saf/1402/video/watchonline.htm False Memory Syndrome
condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience
sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists Whodunnit! (Just for fun) or http://www.hulu.com/scientific-american-frontiers
Season 14, cue to