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UNIT 12 ROME

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Flopez Lopez

on 6 March 2016

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Transcript of UNIT 12 ROME

UNIT 12
ROME AND
THE ROMAN EMPIRE

THE FOUNDING OF ROME
IN HISTORY, THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING AND TIME PERIOD IS VERY IMPORTANT
In the 8th century BC, the Italian Peninsula was inhabited by various cultures, particularly notable being:
In 753 BC
, Rome was founded in the centre of the Italian Peninsula,
around the seven hills near the River Tiber
,
by the Latins.
* The Etruscans in the north and in the centre.
* The Latins in the centre.
* The Greeks in the south.
However, the history of Roman origins is mixed with the legend. According to this, Rome was founded by
Romulus and Remus
in the place where they were abandoned soon after they were born. There,
they were taken and nursed by a she-wolf...
This is very embarrasing!
The Italian Peninsula is a strategic territory between
the Eastern and Western Mediterranean area.
and, eventually, Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel, you know, The typical brothers fight...
PHASES IN THE HISTORY OF ROME
El primero que me traiga la lista completa de los reyes romanos con sus cronologías, antes de miércoles, tendrá 0,5 puntos más en el examen.
THE MONARCHY
753 BC- 509 BC
* The first form of government of Rome was by an absolute monarchy.

* The first king was Romulus and, since then, six kings more governed Rome:

** 3 latins kings
** 3 etruscans kings

* Rome was occupied by The Etruscans in 617 BC but the monarchy lasted more of two
centuries.

* This form of government ended when, in 509 BC, Tarquin the Proud, the last etruscan
king was expelled after a revolt.
THE REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT
SOCIAL DIVISION DURING THE REPUBLIC
* In first years of the Republic had a social division
based on who had political right:

** The elite, the patricians.

** The common people, the plebeians, without
political rights.

* In the 3rd Century BC, the plebeians succeeded to
have equal political rights than the patricians.

THE REPUBLIC
509 BC-27 BC
BASIS OF THE EXPANSION
PHASES OF THE EXPANSION
CONSEQUENCES OF THE EXPANSION
• POSITIVE: the conquest provided:

** Raw materials.
** Lands.
** People.

• NEGATIVE: the expansion caused:

** Social crisis: conflicts between rich men and poor men.
** Political crisis: the outbreak of civil wars between generals who fought for power
** The end of the Republic: the assassination of Julius Caesar the Ides of March in 44 BC
brought the end of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire.


THE CONQUESTS DURING THE REPUBLIC

1st
: domination of the Italian Peninsula (Completed by the mid-third century BC)


2nd
: control over the western Mediterranean region. This involved fighting against Carthage: the Punic Wars (three).

• 3rd
: control over the eastern Mediterranean region. This involved fighting against Greece and the Hellenistic monarchies.

• End
: with the conquest of Egypt (30 BC) and Hispania (19 BC) the Romans controlled all of the Mediterranean area (Mare Nostrum).
Crea tu propio legionario: pinta, esculpe o diseña un legionario romano.
El mejor ganará un punto
extra en el examen.
¡SOLO PUEDE GANAR UNO!
* With the Republic, the power of the monarch were divided between
the following institutions:

** The comitia or voting assemblies that:

*** Was formed by all Roman citizens.
*** Elected magistrates

** The Senate, that:

*** Was composed by 300 members
*** Approved laws, had control over magistrates and decided
on foreign policy.

** The magistrates, who:

*** Were elected each year.
*** Controlled the government.
THE ROMAN
EMPIRE
27 BC-476 AD
THE EMPIRE´S SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
* After Julius Caesar´s death:

** Began a Civil war between the main magistrates.
** That ended with the triumph of Octavian Augustus.

* Since then Octavian Augustus monopolized practically all
the power, instituting the Empire.

* However, the Institutions of The Republic continued to
exist, but under the control of the Emperor

THE PAX ROMANA
* Was the period between the 1st & 2nd Century AD
during which:

** the Roman Empire:

*** Reached its maximum expansion.
*** And enjoyed peace inside its frontiers.

** the conquered people, the barbarians assimilated the culture and customs of the romans: the Romanisation
A) The cities.
*** Instruments: B) Latin.
C) The road network
THE CRISIS OF THIRD CENTURY
* The roman expansion ended in the 3rd century because
of several problems:

** A political crisis caused by the first defeats of the
roman legions.

** A economic crisis: the Empire became poorer.

** A social crisis: the Empire became ruralised.

THE DIVISION OF THE
EMPIRE AND THE GERMANIC INVASIONS

* To control external pressures, the Emperor Theodosius:

** Divided the Empire in 395 AD between:

*** The Western Roman Empire.
*** The Eastern Roman Empire.

* But the pressure of the Huns on Germanic Tribes:

** Led these tribes to migrate and cross the Empire´s frontiers
** and in 476 AD, Flavius Odoacer, leader of the Heruliuan tribe:

*** Conquered Rome.
*** Put an end to the Western Roman Empire
* The duty of every roman citizen to serve in the army.
* The discipline and organization of the army, divided into two main groups:

** The auxiliary units, that were the non-citizen military units.
** The legions units, that were citizen military units.
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