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Revolutions: Thematic Unit Plan
Transcript of Revolutions: Thematic Unit Plan
THE American Revolution
What is a revolution?
The Women's Revolution
The Native American Revolution
The Slaves' Revolution
On May 9, 1754, Benjamin Franklin printed the first political cartoon in American history, a woodcut of a severed snake entitled “Join, or Die,” in his newspaper, the
revolution: (n.) a sudden, radical, or complete change
Revolution: (n) an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed.
revolution: (n.) a fundamental change in the way of thinking about or visualizing something
IN THIS UNIT...
we will look at various types of revolutionary literatures within the United States dealing with subjects such as...
*It is important to understand how revolutionary thoughts and actions have shaped America
*We should be educated about how social and governmental changes happen
*We can get a behind-the-scenes view of important historical occurrences to better understand them
*History repeats itself
Why did the Revolutionary War happen?
The Declaration of Independence
"His Promised Land"
The Confessions of Nat Turner
The Seneca Falls Women's Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Declaration of Sentiments
Sojourner Truth: "Ain't I A Woman?"
Marshall-Cases: Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia 1831
"It was wonderful to find America, but it would have been more wonderful to miss it."
Linda Hogan: "Sickness"
"On the Emigration to America"
"The Indian Burying Ground"
499, 502 bedford anthology
Tecumseh: "Speech of Tecumseh to Governor Harrison"
Questions for History Detectives
1. What was the purpose of the slave songs?
2. How were the words written in the songbook?
3. Where might we still find remnants of slave songs in American culture?
4. Who published the first slave songbook? Why did they do it?
5. Before the first published slave songbook, how were African-Americans portrayed in music?
6. Why might this songbook be considered "revolutionary?"
PBS History Detectives: Slave Songbook (18 minutes)
WHY is this piece of literature revolutionary?
Why is this speech revolutionary?
Think: Why is this poem revolutionary?
The Declaration of Independence was written by delegates of the Second Continental Congress to proclaim their freedom from Great Britain’s rule. The Declaration had three major parts:
stated that all people have unalienable rights (rights that cannot be taken away from you).
stated the complaints of the colonies against King George and how he had violated the colonists’ rights of self- government.
argued that the colonists had the right to separate from Great Britain.
The American position is mentioned at the left of the leaflet. This is contrasted against that British position.
A leaflet aimed at "Hessian" soldiers, or German soldiers hired by the British Empire to fight in the Revolutionary War.
the spreading of ideas, information, or rumors for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person
* Propaganda is often seen as biased political cartoons, pamphlets, posters, etc.
The Boston Massacre
“The Bostonians paying the excise-man, or tarring and feathering.”
A 1774 British print depicted the tarring and feathering of Boston Commissioner of Customs John Malcolm. Tarring and feathering was a ritual of humiliation and public warning that stopped just short of serious injury. This anti-Patriot print showed Customs Commissioner Malcolm being attacked under the Liberty Tree by several Patriots, including a leather-aproned artisan, while the Boston Tea Party occurred in the background. In fact, the Tea Party had taken place four weeks earlier.
The American people were strongly independent.
The British government (monarchy) made colonists pay for things they felt they shouldn't have to (debts from the French and Indian War, taxes, etc.).
The American people had no voice in British Parliament; they wouldn't allow representatives from the colonies.
**"Taxation without representation!"
Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, and others called for an independent America, colonies free from British rule and interference (through LITERATURE!).
Americans started stockpiling guns and ammunition in violation of British laws. Their defense of such a stockpile led to the shots fired at Lexington and Concord and the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
Main Causes of the Revolutionary War
Words to Know:
1. unalienable (inalienable):
incapable of being taken away
wrongfully seizing and holding (an office or powers) by force (especially the seizure of a throne or supreme authority)
a person hired to fight for another country than their own
a cruel and oppressive dictator
the exercise of absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
In 1831 a slave named Nat Turner led a rebellion in Southhampton County, Virginia. A religious leader and self-styled Baptist minister, Turner and a group of followers killed some sixty white men, women, and children on the night of August 21.
Turner and 16 of his conspirators were captured and executed, but the incident continued to haunt Southern whites. Blacks were randomly killed all over Southhampton County; many were beheaded and their heads left along the roads to warn others. In the wake of the uprising planters tightened their grip on slaves and slavery.
"Notes on the State of Virginia" (1785)
by Thomas Jefferson
*Included Jefferson's beliefs about government, politics, law, commerce, and race.
*Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence, the third president of the United States, the founder of the University of Virginia, and the owner of about 200 slaves.
*He fathered six children with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings.
After Turner was caught, he offered a confession for his crimes, explaining his reasoning behind what were considered gruesome acts.
His confession was published by a lawyer in 1831.
by John P. Parker
*Author bio: p. 349
What makes Parker a revolutionary?
Story begins on page 350 of your textbooks.
1. Why did Eliza decide to run away with her baby?
2. What did Eliza do when she heard the men shooting at her (351)?
3. According to Harriet Beecher Stowe, where did Eliza end up (352)? What does this tell us about America and "The Promised Land?"
4. Do you detect bias in this story? Look back through the story and try to find a line that you believe is biased in one way. Be prepared to share
1. Can racial differences be explained by looking at our DNA?
2.Besides skin color, what are some differences between your race and another race?
3. How is a person defined by his or her race? Are you defined by your race? Explain.
Bob Marley: "Redemption Song"
"Swing Low, Sweet Chariot"
Reasons for Slave Spirituals
1. Dual Meaning
*hunger for freedom
2. Encoded Messages
THINGS TO KNOW
: a reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another work of literature. Allusions are often indirect or brief references to well-known characters or events.
Example: the allusion to Moses from The Bible in "Go Down, Moses"
*born on February 6, 1945, in St. Ann Parish, Jamaica. In 1963, Marley and his friends formed the Wailing Wailers.
*considered the first international superstar to emerge from the so-called Third World.
*revolutionary because many of his songs dealt with oppression and history of Africans. An assassination was attempted in 1976
*He died in Miami, Florida, on May 11, 1981, of cancer.
*Born in 1885 in Moorestown, NJ
*Grew up as a Quaker
*Went to college in England and returned in 1910
*Became interested in women's rights
*Formed the National Women's Party (NWP) with Lucy Burns
*Known for using "provocative visual media" to gain supporters
*Was a key figure in passing the 19th Amendment (giving women the right to vote)
*Died in 1977 in her hometown
*Born in 1879 in Brooklyn, NY
*Known for her "robust sense of humor" and fierce debating skills
*Received education in Germany and England
*With Alice Paul, led the suffrage movement to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment
*Died in Brooklyn in 1966
Iron Jawed Angels
Ida B Wells
Susan B. Anthony
Carrie Chapman Catt
*born in 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts
*Was involved in the temperance movement, but was not allowed to speak at rallies because she was female
*Met Elizabeth Cady Stanton and became active in women's rights in 1852
*Despite abuse and opposition, Anthony traveled the U.S. fighting for women's rights and the abolition of slavery until her death in 1906.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
*born in 1815 in Johnstown, NY
*Her father was a lawyer who did not hide that he loved her brother more than her
*Was drawn to abolitionist, temperance, and women's rights movements
*With other powerful females, held the famous Seneca Falls Convention in July 1848. At this meeting, the attendees drew up its “Declaration of Sentiments” and took the lead in proposing that women be granted the right to vote.
*Was married and birthed seven children
*Passed away in 1902
July 19-20, 1848
A Play by Susan Glaspell
*Born in 1876 in Davenport, IA
*Graduated from Drake University
*was a founding member of Heterodoxy, a radical group of women activists who were prominent in the feminist movement of New York in the years 1910-1920
*was encouraged to create female characters who desired to free themselves from the stereotypical roles into which they had been cast
This short play is based on an actual murder mystery Glaspell investigated when working for the Des Moines Daily News
As we read/ view this play, consider how the following words or objects affect the plot:
jar of cherries
Trifles is considered an early feminist drama. When we finish reading/ acting, we will discuss why.
1. How does the setting of the play contribute to our understanding of Minnie Wright’s position?
2. Why do we never see either of the Wrights directly?
3. Why do the men miss all the real evidence, and why do the women cover it up?
Is Mr. Wright really so wrong? We are told John Wright was not a bad man, “he didn’t drink, and kept his word . . . and paid his debts.” Minnie Wright’s murder of her husband would be condoned by feminist critics . . . as a “defiance of patriarchy.” Was it a “crime” for Minnie to strangle her husband or simple justice?
Words to Know
1. feminism: the advocacy of women's rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.
2. patriarchy: a system of society in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line.
From 2014 Super Bowl
Words to Know
(n.) : the act of making something better or more acceptable
Christianity : the act of saving people from sin and evil : the fact of being saved from sin or evil
(n.) : the act of officially ending or stopping something : the act of abolishing something; specifically : the act of abolishing slavery
(n.) : someone who attacks and steals from a ship at sea
(v.) : to free from restraint, control, or the power of another; especially : to free from bondage
Malcolm X: Dictionary Scene
Malcolm X: House Negro vs. Field Negro
Malcolm X Biography
*born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska
*his father was a Black preacher and supported the Black Nationalist Party
*because of his father's support of the Black Nationalists, their house was burned down and he was murdered
*he was convicted of burglary and sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1946
*while in prison, Malcolm became a follower of Elijah Muhammed and converted to Nation of Islam (NOI)
*he believed that white people made it impossible for blacks to be successful; became a black supremacist
*changed his name to "Malcolm X" in tribute to the surname he lost
*assassinated February 21, 1965 while speaking onstage by 3 gunmen
"By any means
Women's Suffrage Timeline:
Sojourner Truth delivers her famous "Ain't I a Woman" speech at a women's rights convention in Akron, Ohio. The former slave spent 40 years of her life preaching a message of equality for all people.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony organize the National Woman Suffrage Association to fight for women's rights, especially the right to vote. More than a century later, Anthony was honored when the U.S. Mint created a coin using her image.
After 72 years of struggle, women win the right to vote with the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Shortly afterwards, the League of Women Voters is formed to push for more reforms.
What do you know about the Women's Suffrage Movement?
Declaration of Sentiments
He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise.
He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice.
He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and degraded men--both natives and foreigners.
Having deprived her of this first right of a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides.
He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead.
He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns.
He has made her, morally, an irresponsible being, as she can commit many crimes with impunity, provided they be done in the presence of her husband. In the covenant of marriage, she is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master--the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty, and to administer chastisement.
He has so framed the laws of divorce, as to what shall be the proper causes, and in case of separation, to whom the guardianship of the children shall be given, as to be wholly regardless of the happiness of women--the law, in all cases, going upon a false supposition of the supremacy of man, and giving all power into his hands.
After depriving her of all rights as a married woman, if single, and the owner of property, he has taxed her to support a government which recognizes her only when her property can be made profitable to it.
He has monopolized nearly all the profitable employments, and from those she is permitted to follow, she receives but a scanty remuneration. He closes against her all the avenues to wealth and distinction which he considers most honorable to himself. As a teacher of theology, medicine, or law, she is not known.
He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her.
He allows her in church, as well as state, but a subordinate position, claiming apostolic authority for her exclusion from the ministry, and, with some exceptions, from any public participation in the affairs of the church.
He has created a false public sentiment by giving to the world a different code of morals for men and women, by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society, are not only tolerated, but deemed of little account in man.
He has usurped the prerogative of Jehovah himself, claiming it as his right to assign for her a sphere of action, when that belongs to her conscience and to her God.
He has endeavored, in every way that he could, to destroy her confidence in her own powers, to lessen her self-respect, and to make her willing to lead a dependent and abject life.
Now, in view of this entire disfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation--in view of the unjust laws above mentioned, and because women do feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.
The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.
Last Part of the Preamble
Do you think this document was effective?
Why/ why not?
About Sojourner Truth
Do this NOW:
Find an example of another revolutionary person (a famous person or otherwise). Find a photograph of that person and post it to the discussion on Schoology.
"Follow the Drinking Gourd" (2:30)
Read "Follow the Drinking Gourd" Explanation on Schoology..
Now, open "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" meaning in Schoology.
The right to vote
Women fighting for the right to vote
the advocacy of women's rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.
As we look at the following examples of propaganda, be able to answer the following questions:
1. Who made this cartoon?
2. What is this cartoon's basic message?
3. How are suffragettes portrayed?
Don't forget to include the URL!
"Changes" by Tupac Shakur
*raised by Black Panther activists
*educated on radical politics by his mother, who was also addicted to drugs
*East Coast vs. West Coast rapper feud
*Killed in drive-by shooting while riding as a passenger in car driven by Suge Knight
"Women's Rights and Wrongs"
The New York Times
1. How is this different from today?
2. Why was there such a double standard?
Your final poster must include the following:
1. The original complaint (taken directly from Stanton’s document)
2. At least 3 words that might help your point (see example)
3. At least 3 pictures that might help illustrate your point
3. Vivid colors and artistry. Make this poster stand out!
4. YOU MUST INCLUDE URLs IF USING PRINTED PHOTOS (though I prefer magazine cutouts)
Create Your Own Utopia
a place of ideal perfection especially in laws, government, and social conditions
**see Utopia PowerPoint
What is an American?
J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur
*Came to America shortly after Revolutionary War
*Created idealized myth about America
What do foreigners think of Americans today?
What did Crèvecoeur think of Americans in 1782, only six years after U.S.A was founded?
existing only in the imagination; desirable or perfect but not likely to become a reality.
"Hate Rising" (8 minutes)
The Ideal American vs. The Real American
After Reading “Historical Overview: Living Conditions” by Nicholas Boston, consider the following question:
If you were enslaved, what would you do?
A. Stay there
B. Run away
C. Fight back
Option B: Run Away
Option A: Stay There
Option C: Fight Back
Where do we still hear slave songs?
*Born in 1813 in Edenton, North Carolina
*Was taught to read and write by her master's daughter
*Was raped and treated terribly by her master
*Hid from her master for several years
*Eventually escaped and was reunited with her children; changed her name to "Linda Brent" and wrote about her experiences