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Revolutions: Thematic Unit Plan

This unit is to be used in a 10th grade language arts classroom. The purpose of this unit is to expose students to different "revolutions" in American history while exploring a variety of texts dealing with gender, race, politics, and beliefs.
by

Addie Sadler

on 26 September 2016

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Transcript of Revolutions: Thematic Unit Plan

REVOLUTIONS
THE American Revolution
What is a revolution?
The Women's Revolution
The Native American Revolution
The Slaves' Revolution
American Literature
Race: The Power of an Illusion
Race: The Power of an Illusion
On May 9, 1754, Benjamin Franklin printed the first political cartoon in American history, a woodcut of a severed snake entitled “Join, or Die,” in his newspaper, the
Pennsylvania Gazette
.
Day 1
revolution: (n.) a sudden, radical, or complete change
revolution: (n.) a fundamental change in political organization; especially : the overthrow or renunciation of one government or ruler and the substitution of another by the governed
revolution: (n.) a fundamental change in the way of thinking about or visualizing something
revolution: (n.) the action by a celestial body of going round in an orbit or elliptical course; also : apparent movement of such a body round the earth (science definition)
IN THIS UNIT...
we will look at various types of revolutionary literatures within the United States dealing with subjects such as...
RACE
GENDER
POLITICS
SOCIAL LIBERTIES
RELIGION
WHY?
*It is important to understand how revolutionary thoughts and actions have shaped America

*We should be educated about how social and governmental changes happen

*We can get a behind-the-scenes view of important historical occurrences to better understand them

*History repeats itself
Why did the Revolutionary War happen?
An Overseas Disagreement
The Declaration of Independence
"His Promised Land"
The Confessions of Nat Turner
http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1826-1850/the-confessions-of-nat-turner/history-of-motives.php
The Seneca Falls Women's Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Declaration of Sentiments
Sojourner Truth: "Ain't I A Woman?"
Marshall-Cases: Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia 1831
http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1826-1850/marshall-cases-cherokee-nation-v-state-of-georgia-1831.php
"It was wonderful to find America, but it would have been more wonderful to miss it."

Mark Twain

www.brainyquote.com
Linda Hogan: "Sickness"
Philip Freneau
"On the Emigration to America"

"The Indian Burying Ground"
499, 502 bedford anthology
Tecumseh: "Speech of Tecumseh to Governor Harrison"
Questions for History Detectives
1. What was the purpose of the slave songs?

2. How were the words written in the songbook?

3. Where might we still find remnants of slave songs in American culture?

4. Who published the first slave songbook? Why did they do it?

5. Before the first published slave songbook, how were African-Americans portrayed in music?

6. Why might this songbook be considered "revolutionary?"
PBS History Detectives: Slave Songbook (18 minutes)
King George III
August 23, 1775

“Whereas many of our subjects in divers parts of our Colonies and Plantations in North America, misled by
dangerous and ill designing men
, and
forgetting the allegiance
which they owe to the power that has protected and supported them; after
various disorderly acts
committed in disturbance of the publick peace, to the
obstruction of lawful commerce
, and to the
oppression of our loyal subjects
carrying on the same; have at length proceeded to
open and avowed rebellion
, by
arraying themselves in a hostile manner
, to withstand the execution of the law, and
traitorously preparing, ordering and levying war against us

LITERATURE WORKSHOP
WHY is this piece of literature revolutionary?
Why is this speech revolutionary?
Think: Why is this poem revolutionary?
"9 Acts of Individual Defiance that Changed the World"
by susheila.juggapah (2014)
… “we have thought fit, by and with the advice of our Privy Council, to issue our Royal Proclamation, hereby declaring, that not only
all our Officers, civil and military, are obliged to exert their utmost endeavours to suppress such rebellion
, and to bring the traitors to justice, but that all our subjects of this Realm, and the dominions thereunto belonging, are bound by law to be aiding and assisting in the suppression of such rebellion, and to
disclose and make known all traitorous conspiracies and attempts against us, our crown and dignity
; and we do accordingly strictly charge and command all our Officers, as well civil as military, and all others our obedient and loyal subjects,
to use their utmost endeavours to withstand and suppress such rebellion, and to disclose and make known all treasons and traitorous conspiracies
which they shall know to be against us, our crown and dignity…”
King George, continued
from http://www.yale.edu/glc/aces2/lessons2/chesnes3.pdf
The following excerpt is King George III’s response to the colonist’s acts of rebellion and
defiance (i.e. The Boston Tea Party, various boycotts, anti-British propaganda, etc.)
King George III
How did the king view the colonists that rebelled against him?

How did the king plan to suppress the rebellion?
The Declaration of Independence was written by delegates of the Second Continental Congress to proclaim their freedom from Great Britain’s rule. The Declaration had three major parts:

1. The
first part
stated that all people have unalienable rights (rights that cannot be taken away from you).

2. The
second part
stated the complaints of the colonies against King George and how he had violated the colonists’ rights of self- government.

3. The
third part
argued that the colonists had the right to separate from Great Britain.

Paul M. A. Linebarger mentions in Psychological Warfare, Combat Forces Press, 1948:

"The American Forces at the Battle of Bunker Hill used one of the earliest versions of front-line combat propaganda. The appeal was as direct as could be wished. Artful use was made of the sharp class distinctions then existing between British officers and enlisted men; fear was exploited as an aid to persuasion; the language was pointed. Even in our own time, the Bunker Hill propaganda leaflet stands as a classic example of how to do good field propaganda." from http://www.psywarrior.com/DivideandConquer.html
The American position is mentioned at the left of the leaflet. This is contrasted against that British position.
A leaflet aimed at "Hessian" soldiers, or German soldiers hired by the British Empire to fight in the Revolutionary War.
PROPAGANDA:
the spreading of ideas, information, or rumors for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person


http://www.teachamericanhistory.org/file/join_or_die_1.pdf
Though this was originally created to demonstrate the American colonies' separation and disagreement over going to war with the French and Native Americans, it became a symbol for the American Revolution later. Why?
* Propaganda is often seen as biased political cartoons, pamphlets, posters, etc.
The Boston Massacre
“The Bostonians paying the excise-man, or tarring and feathering.”

A 1774 British print depicted the tarring and feathering of Boston Commissioner of Customs John Malcolm. Tarring and feathering was a ritual of humiliation and public warning that stopped just short of serious injury. This anti-Patriot print showed Customs Commissioner Malcolm being attacked under the Liberty Tree by several Patriots, including a leather-aproned artisan, while the Boston Tea Party occurred in the background. In fact, the Tea Party had taken place four weeks earlier.
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6806/
The American people were strongly independent.

The British government decided to make the American colonies pay a large share of the war debt from the French and Indian War.

Through the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, and other taxes, the British tried to collect taxes that the American people considered harsh.

The American people also thought that they should be able to send their own people to Britain's Parliament or at least vote for Britain's lawmakers.

The combination of the harsh taxes and the lack of an American voice in Parliament gave rise to the famous phrase "taxation without representation."

Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, and others called for an independent America, colonies free from British rule and interference (through LITERATURE!).

Americans started stockpiling guns and ammunition in violation of British laws. Their defense of such a stockpile led to the shots fired at Lexington and Concord and the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
Main Causes of the Revolutionary War
Adapted fromhttp://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/causesrevwar.htm
Words to Know:
1. Preamble:
a preliminary or preparatory statement; an introduction.
2. unalienable:
incapable of being repudiated or transferred to another
3. usurpation:
wrongfully seizing and holding (an office or powers) by force (especially the seizure of a throne or supreme authority)
4. mercenary:
a person hired to fight for another country than their own
5. tyrant:
a cruel and oppressive dictator
1. Why does the Declaration of Independence use the words “pursuit of happiness” instead of talking about each person’s right to be happy?

2. What do the writers of the Declaration mean when they say these rights are “unalienable”?

3. What did Jefferson mean by "all men are created equal"? What does "all men are created equal" mean to you?

Follow up Questions
Nat Turner's Rebellion
In 1831 a slave named Nat Turner led a rebellion in Southhampton County, Virginia. A religious leader and self-styled Baptist minister, Turner and a group of followers killed some sixty white men, women, and children on the night of August 21.

Turner and 16 of his conspirators were captured and executed, but the incident continued to haunt Southern whites. Blacks were randomly killed all over Southhampton County; many were beheaded and their heads left along the roads to warn others. In the wake of the uprising planters tightened their grip on slaves and slavery.
More propaganda...
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6811/
"Notes on the State of Virginia" (1785)
by Thomas Jefferson
*Included Jefferson's beliefs about government, politics, law, commerce, and race.

*Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence, the third president of the United States, the founder of the University of Virginia, and the owner of about 200 slaves.

*He fathered six children with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings.
http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/brief-biography-thomas-jefferson
After Turner was caught, he offered a confession for his crimes, explaining his reasoning behind what were considered gruesome acts.

His confession was published by a lawyer in 1831.
by John P. Parker
*Author bio: p. 349
What makes Parker a revolutionary?

Story begins on page 350 of your textbooks.
Discussion Questions
1. Why did Eliza decide to run away with her baby?

2. What did Eliza do when she heard the men shooting at her (351)?

3. According to Harriet Beecher Stowe, where did Eliza end up (352)? What does this tell us about America and "The Promised Land?"

4. Do you detect bias in this story? Look back through the story and try to find a line that you believe is biased in one way. Be prepared to share
.
Respond:
1. How is a person defined by his or her race? Are you defined by your race? Explain.
Bob Marley: "Redemption Song"
"Swing Low, Sweet Chariot"
Reasons for Slave Spirituals
1. Dual Meaning
*religious faith
*hunger for freedom
2. Encoded Messages


THINGS TO KNOW
Allusion
: a reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another work of literature. Allusions are often indirect or brief references to well-known characters or events.
Example: the allusion to Moses from The Bible in "Go Down, Moses"
Journal:
Think of a song that you find particularly inspiring. Write what song it is and what it inspires you to do.
Bob Marley
*born on February 6, 1945, in St. Ann Parish, Jamaica. In 1963, Marley and his friends formed the Wailing Wailers.
*considered the first international superstar to emerge from the so-called Third World.
*revolutionary because many of his songs dealt with oppression and history of Africans. An assassination was attempted in 1976
*He died in Miami, Florida, on May 11, 1981, of cancer.
http://www.biography.com/people/bob-marley-9399524?page=3
Alice Paul
*Born in 1885 in Moorestown, NJ

*Grew up as a Quaker

*Went to college in England and returned in 1910

*Became interested in women's rights

*Formed the National Women's Party (NWP) with Lucy Burns

*Known for using "provocative visual media" to gain supporters

*Was a key figure in passing the 19th Amendment (giving women the right to vote)

*Died in 1977 in her hometown
Lucy Burns
*Born in 1879 in Brooklyn, NY

*Known for her "robust sense of humor" and fierce debating skills

*Received education in Germany and England

*With Alice Paul, led the suffrage movement to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment

*Died in Brooklyn in 1966
Iron Jawed Angels
Ida B Wells
Susan B. Anthony
Carrie Chapman Catt
http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-01333.html
Ines Milholland
*born in 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts

*Was involved in the temperance movement, but was not allowed to speak at rallies because she was female

*Met Elizabeth Cady Stanton and became active in women's rights in 1852

*Despite abuse and opposition, Anthony traveled the U.S. fighting for women's rights and the abolition of slavery until her death in 1906.
http://susanbanthonyhouse.org/her-story/biography.php
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
*born in 1815 in Johnstown, NY

*Her father was a lawyer who did not hide that he loved her brother more than her

*Was drawn to abolitionist, temperance, and women's rights movements

*With other powerful females, held the famous Seneca Falls Convention in July 1848. At this meeting, the attendees drew up its “Declaration of Sentiments” and took the lead in proposing that women be granted the right to vote.

*Was married and birthed seven children

*Passed away in 1902
http://www.biography.com/people/elizabeth-cady-stanton-9492182?page=2
July 19-20, 1848
TRIFLES
A Play by Susan Glaspell
Susan Glaspell
*Born in 1876 in Davenport, IA

*Graduated from Drake University

*was a founding member of Heterodoxy, a radical group of women activists who were prominent in the feminist movement of New York in the years 1910-1920

*was encouraged to create female characters who desired to free themselves from the stereotypical roles into which they had been cast
Trifles
This short play is based on an actual murder mystery Glaspell investigated when working for the Des Moines Daily News
As we read/ view this play, consider how the following words or objects affect the plot:
Incompleted work
caged bird
jar of cherries
quilt
footsteps
"knot it"
http://itech.fgcu.edu/faculty/wohlpart/alra/glaspell.htm#Trifles
Trifles is considered an early feminist drama. When we finish reading/ acting, we will discuss why.
After Reading...
1. How does the setting of the play contribute to our understanding of Minnie Wright’s position?

2. Why do we never see either of the Wrights directly?

3. Why do the men miss all the real evidence, and why do the women cover it up?
Is Mr. Wright really so wrong? We are told John Wright was not a bad man, “he didn’t drink, and kept his word . . . and paid his debts.” Minnie Wright’s murder of her husband would be condoned by feminist critics . . . as a “defiance of patriarchy.” Was it a “crime” for Minnie to strangle her husband or simple justice?
Words to Know


1. feminism: the advocacy of women's rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.

2. patriarchy: a system of society in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line.
From 2014 Super Bowl
Words to Know
1. Redemption:
(n.) : the act of making something better or more acceptable

Christianity : the act of saving people from sin and evil : the fact of being saved from sin or evil
2. Abolition:
(n.) : the act of officially ending or stopping something : the act of abolishing something; specifically : the act of abolishing slavery
3. Pirate:
(n.) : someone who attacks and steals from a ship at sea
4. Emancipate:
(v.) : to free from restraint, control, or the power of another; especially : to free from bondage
from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary
Malcolm X
Malcolm X: Dictionary Scene
Malcolm X: House Negro vs. Field Negro
Malcolm X Biography
*born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska
*his father was a Black preacher and supported the Black Nationalist Party
*because of his father's support of the Black Nationalists, their house was burned down and he was murdered
*he was convicted of burglary and sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1946
*while in prison, Malcolm became a follower of Elijah Muhammed and converted to Nation of Islam (NOI)
*he believed that white people made it impossible for blacks to be successful; became a black supremacist
*changed his name to "Malcolm X" in tribute to the surname he lost
*assassinated February 21, 1965 while speaking onstage by 3 gunmen
"By any means
necessary"
--Malcolm X
from http://www.malcolmx.com/about/bio.html
Women's Suffrage Timeline:
1851

Sojourner Truth delivers her famous "Ain't I a Woman" speech at a women's rights convention in Akron, Ohio. The former slave spent 40 years of her life preaching a message of equality for all people.

1869

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony organize the National Woman Suffrage Association to fight for women's rights, especially the right to vote. More than a century later, Anthony was honored when the U.S. Mint created a coin using her image.

1920

After 72 years of struggle, women win the right to vote with the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Shortly afterwards, the League of Women Voters is formed to push for more reforms.

http://www.timeforkids.com/news/womens-history-milestones/9731
What do you know about the Women's Suffrage Movement?
Declaration of Sentiments
He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise.

He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice.

He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and degraded men--both natives and foreigners.

Having deprived her of this first right of a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides.

He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead.

He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns.
He has made her, morally, an irresponsible being, as she can commit many crimes with impunity, provided they be done in the presence of her husband. In the covenant of marriage, she is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master--the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty, and to administer chastisement.

He has so framed the laws of divorce, as to what shall be the proper causes, and in case of separation, to whom the guardianship of the children shall be given, as to be wholly regardless of the happiness of women--the law, in all cases, going upon a false supposition of the supremacy of man, and giving all power into his hands.

After depriving her of all rights as a married woman, if single, and the owner of property, he has taxed her to support a government which recognizes her only when her property can be made profitable to it.
He has monopolized nearly all the profitable employments, and from those she is permitted to follow, she receives but a scanty remuneration. He closes against her all the avenues to wealth and distinction which he considers most honorable to himself. As a teacher of theology, medicine, or law, she is not known.

He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her.

He allows her in church, as well as state, but a subordinate position, claiming apostolic authority for her exclusion from the ministry, and, with some exceptions, from any public participation in the affairs of the church.
He has created a false public sentiment by giving to the world a different code of morals for men and women, by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society, are not only tolerated, but deemed of little account in man.

He has usurped the prerogative of Jehovah himself, claiming it as his right to assign for her a sphere of action, when that belongs to her conscience and to her God.

He has endeavored, in every way that he could, to destroy her confidence in her own powers, to lessen her self-respect, and to make her willing to lead a dependent and abject life.


Now, in view of this entire disfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation--in view of the unjust laws above mentioned, and because women do feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.
RESOLUTION
The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.
Last Part of the Preamble
Do you think this document was effective?

Why/ why not?
About Sojourner Truth
http://www.biography.com/people/sojourner-truth-9511284
Introduction to Revolutions:
America is...
In order to practice writing skills (and for me to see how you are as a writer), you will be practicing writing a paragraph regarding your beliefs about America.
We will start by BRAINSTORMING.
On your own paper, make a list of words you might use to describe America. These don't all have to be good things; some things about America aren't always positive.
3 minutes!
SHARE OUT.
If you have a word that you think describes America, write it on the board and add our class list.
As I hand out the half sheets of paper, pick your
top 3-5 words
to describe America. THEN, think of examples explaining WHY these words describe America.
Example: BRAVE
WHY?
America is brave because we are responsible for inventing new technology (cotton gin, computer, etc.). We are also brave because we stopped the Nazis from holding Jews in concentration camps during WWII.
Once you have at least three ideas and examples written, pick your
FAVORITE.
You're going to use this one for the first writing assignment of the school year!
Now, look at the assignment on Schoology. You will be composing a paragraph explaining why America is _________________.
Also, don't forget:
*capitalization
*punctuation
*complete sentences
*indentation
Good luck! :)
Do this NOW:
Find an example of another revolutionary person (a famous person or otherwise). Find a photograph of that person and post it to the discussion on Schoology.
Step 1: Prewriting
Flip your half sheet over.

Write a paragraph (using the hamburger model) about 1 word that describes America.
Step 2: Drafting
Step 3: Revising
Exchange your rough draft with someone you trust.
This person will use the rubric to help evaluate your rough draft.
Now that you've THOROUGHLY revised your partner's paragraph, exchange again (with the same person).

Look closely at the feedback you were given.
Steps 4 & 5: Editing and Publishing
Due Monday!
"Follow the Drinking Gourd" (2:30)
Read "Follow the Drinking Gourd" Explanation on Schoology..


Now, open "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" meaning in Schoology.
Suffrage:
The right to vote

Suffragette/ Suffragists:
Women fighting for the right to vote

Feminism:
the advocacy of women's rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.
As we look at the following examples of propaganda, be able to answer the following questions:
1. Who made this cartoon?

2. What is this cartoon's basic message?

3. How are suffragettes portrayed?
Don't forget to include the URL!
3 points!
Harriet Jacobs
http://www.laphamsquarterly.org/roundtable/harriet-jacobs-200
"Changes" by Tupac Shakur
http://make-me-successful.com/tag/tips-for-success-from-tupac-shakur/
(1971-1996)
*raised by Black Panther activists

*educated on radical politics by his mother, who was also addicted to drugs

*East Coast vs. West Coast rapper feud

*Killed in drive-by shooting while riding as a passenger in car driven by Suge Knight
http://www.biography.com/people/tupac-shakur-206528#violent-death
"Women's Rights and Wrongs"
The New York Times
(1852)
Think:
1. How is this different from today?
2. Why was there such a double standard?
Your project:
Your final poster must include the following:
1. The original complaint (taken directly from Stanton’s document)

2. At least 3 words that might help your point (see example)

3. At least 3 pictures that might help illustrate your point

3. Vivid colors and artistry. Make this poster stand out!

4. YOU MUST INCLUDE URLs IF USING PRINTED PHOTOS (though I prefer magazine cutouts)
Full transcript