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grammar

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by

Prof. Rahman

on 25 October 2016

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Transcript of grammar

grammar
Communicate your ideas effectively.
how to pass the epe
Your essays will be graded on how well you perform in four writing areas:
Agreement

proofread
Before you turn your paper in, take at least 5-10 minutes to review your writing. Make yourself a checklist of items to correct.
Complete sentences
Parallel Sentence Structure
Correct Spelling of Look-alikes & Sound-alikes
To make your words mean what you want them to, you must use proper grammar and mechanics. Your ability to express yourself clearly and competently will be your key to passing the EPE.
Periods, Commas, Semi-colons, Quotes
Subject-Verb Agreement
Punctuation
Run-ons and Fragments
Parallelism
Commonly misused words and phrases
Content
central idea, relevant details
Organization
intro, thesis statement, topic sentences, transitions, sequenced body, and conclusion
Style/Expression
appropriate tone, word choice, sentence pattern
Grammar/Mechanics
error-free grammar, spelling, punctuation, and mechanics
Our focus for today.
Some common problem areas
The subject of a sentence can be either singular or plural. Its verb must agree with the quantity indicated in the subject.

If the
subject
is singular, the
verb
must also be singular.
Usain

runs
faster than any man in the world.

If the
subject
is
singular
, the
verb
in the present tense ends with
"s."
Usain

run
s
faster than any man in the world.
Subject-Verb Agreement
Subject-Verb Agreement
If the
subject
is plural, the
verb
must also be plural.
The
members
of the USA's men's 4x100 relay team
were
disqualified.

If the
subject
is
plural
, the present tense
verb
does NOT end with
"s."
The
members
of the USA's men's 4x100 relay team
were
disqualified.

Note: Pay close attention to which noun is the
subject
.
The
members
of the USA's men's 4x100 relay team
were
disqualified.
OR
The USA's men's 4x100 relay
team

was
disqualified.
Both are correct!
Run-on Sentences
These are often made because the sentence has too many
subjects
and/or
predicates
.
The
candidate

tried to speak
several
demonstrators

shouted slogans
.
Fix this by adding a
coordinating conjunction
between the separate subjects and predicates.
The
candidate

tried to speak
, but
several
demonstrators

shouted slogans
.
Use this acronym to remember the
coordinating conjunctions
:
F
or
A
nd
N
or
B
ut
O
r
Y
et
S
o
Or, make your sentence complex by adding a
subordinating conjunction
.
When
the candidate tried to speak, several demonstrators shouted slogans.
Here's a list of some
subordinating conjunctions
:
When Because If Although Despite Since While Until Unless After
The Comma Splice
To separate two independent clauses within a sentence, you can't use only a comma. This is called a
comma splice
and causes a run-on sentence error. Don't make this mistake!
Myesha has trouble accepting compliments
, s
he blushes and becomes very quiet.

Here are some ways to fix it:
Use a
semi-colon
Myesha has trouble accepting compliments
;
she blushes and becomes very quiet.

Use a
comma
and
conjunction
Myesha has trouble accepting compliments
, so
she blushes and becomes very quiet.

Make
separate sentences
Myesha has trouble accepting compliments
. S
he blushes and becomes very quiet.
Fragments
The Apostrophe
The Comma
Parallel Thesis Statements
Homophones
Idioms
A fragment is an incomplete sentence. It's made when there is either no
subject
or no
predicate
in the "sentence."
Simone Manuel
, an African-American female swimmer who won two gold and two silver Olympic medals.
Swimming the freestyle
wowed American audiences
, who had never seen a black woman win an Olympic swimming medal.
What's missing?
Try this:
Simone Manuel

is an African-American female swimmer
who won two gold and two silver Olympic medals.
OR
Simone Manuel
, an African-American female swimmer who won two gold and two silver Olympic medals,
was the first to ever do so
.
Swimming the freestyle,
she

wowed American audiences
, who had never seen a black woman win an Olympic swimming medal.
Apostrophes are either used to make
contractions
or show
possession
. If you add an "s" without first using an apostrophe, you've just made a word
plural
.
I dont like the
cakes
icing.
Instead, write what you mean:
I
don't
like the
cake's
icing.
Apostrophes can be tricky for plurals. Add apostrophe-s after the plural form of the word.
The line for the
women's
bathroom never fails to be long.
The
bees'
hive is full of honey.
Note:

No need to add -s after the apostrophe in plural form if the possessive doesn't add another syllable.
Commas are used to separate
items in a list,

set apart descriptors,
or
separate introductory phrases.

They ARE NOT used to separate two independent clauses...unless
with a conjunction
.
Michael Phelps has won Olympic swimming medals in the
freestyle, butterfly, and medley
.
Michael Phelps
, a Towson, Md., native,
has won medals in the
freestyle, butterfly, and medley.
As expected,
Michael Phelps won even more medals at the Summer Olympics.
Ryan Lochte was expected to medal in the 200 meters
, but
he failed to make it to the podium.
Ryan Lochte said he was robbed at gunpoint
, but
he lied.
A sentence is not parallel if the words or phrases within it lack a similar grammatical structure.
In Rio, some athletes feared crime, poverty, and
getting the Zika virus
.
If your first two thesis points are
nouns
, the third should also be a noun.
In Rio, some athletes feared
crime, poverty,
and
Zika
.
Think about how to make your phrases parallel, too.
In Rio, some athletes feared the
threat
of crime, the
danger
of poverty, and the
spread
of the Zika virus.
Use your vocabulary skills to make your thesis statements
strong, clear, and parallel.
Homophones are words that sound the same but are spelled differently and mean different things.
there/ their/ they're
There - place
Their - possessive
They're - contraction of "they are"
Common Homophone Errors:
affect/ effect
Affect - verb, can change form
Effect - nouns, can be plural
to/ too/ two
To - preposition
Too - adverb, means in excess or also
Two - number
past/ passed
Past - time period
Passed - go by physically
accept/ except
Accept - verb meaning to receive or bring into
Except - preposition referring to something left out
Become familiar with some commonly used phrases because confusing them is a
red flag
for your readers:

For example

NOT
For an example
On the other hand

NOT
In the other hand
In order to

NOT
In other to
In other words

NOT
In another word
it's/ its
It's - it is
Its - possessive
then/than
Then - preposition, next Than - adverb, comparison
Others to remember:
As a means of
As long as
For the simple fact that
In addition

NOT
In addiction
*If in doubt, just don't use the idiom. Find another way to say exactly what you mean, confidently.
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