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Culture, Sociology, and Why We Suck

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Chris Elliston

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Culture, Sociology, and Why We Suck

Culture, Sociology, and Why We Suck
Immanuel Wallerstein's: The Uncertainty of nowledge (Ch. 9-11)

In 1818 Thomas Jeferson developed the academic system of organising used today when he founded the University of Virginia
However the development of pure divides in academia was not finite as shown by the multiplicity of disciplines most prevalent scholars had possessed and the increase of disciplines from then onwards thus creating more complex systems
The academy became a much more public institution, but also a much more rigurous institution with more stringent divides and focuses of faculties. The faculties that succeeded were andwill always be those that possess backing and profit
A particular rise of a specific subset of liberalism originated from the early 19th-century
The increase of migration, urbanization, industrialization, and the shift in class distinctions and power led to the identifying and naming of sociology. The predictons from then on were to conclude why and what to expect, from here sociology can be divided into three perspectives: conservative, (classic) liberal, and Socialist
The theories developed in this time period were very much relying on the historical prevalence of the historical class division that was in academi, and furthered by the fact that a decent portion of sociological ideas and thinking originated in and in the surrounding areas of Germany which shifted the discipline to a culturally Germanic belief
Notable sociological theorists (who were alive and publishing): G. W. C Hegel, Auguste Comte, Soren Kierkgaard, Alexis de Tocqueville, Soren Kierkgaard, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, John Stuart Mill, Fredrick Hombuldt, Adolphe Quetelet, Harriet Martineau, Pierre Guillaume Frédéric le Play
Timeline of Sociology:
Pre-1650 and Proto-sociology/proto-social science

The realm of Philosophy tackled the concept of society through its application of the five categories of philosophy:
Metaphysics - the study of how and why things exist.
Episemology - the study of knowledge innate of deduced.
Ethics - The study of how we interact with the external world.
Aesthetics - the study of how we can consider beauty.
The study of humanity and society is about as old as the idea of a "civilization"
The aspiring of the study of human society took the form of history, proto-political science, and classical anthropology as it had been developed and re-defined by civilizations
The act of colonization that began in the 13th-century brought on a desire to apply more of a conscious effort to the study of "different" groups. The standards were of the civilised against the other, and the application of this knowledge was differentiation and suppression.
Simultaneously to this was the rise of internal dialogues concerning the study of society's and humanities
Notable social theorists include: Socrates, Plato, Heodotus, Confucius, Xenophon,Tacitus, Nikolai Machiavelli, Cicero, Polybius, Hugo Grotius, Thucydides, Jean Bodin, Plutarch
Terminology: Cultural Terms
World System Theory
- the theory that international socioeconomic systems occur through historical perspective and origins and that contemporary truths and experiences are the progression and adaptation of now debunkt truths
World System
s - international socioeconomic systems/interactions that can be experienced internationally and divide countries based on historical features as "succeeding" internationally or "failing" internationally, "a social system that has an axial division of labor and is large enough to encompass multiple "local" cultures" (Wallerstein 2004)
World System Analysis
- a term more commonly used by Walerstein to describe the use of historical truths and multidisciplinary action to deconstruct world systems.
Core Countries - Dominant capitalist countries that exploit peripheral countries for resources and labour (e.g. Japan, USA, )
Peripheral Countries - countries that are dependet on core countries for capital support (e.g. the Philippines)
semi-Peripheral Countries - countries that share attributes of both core and peripheral countries (e.g. Canada, Russia, China (recently debatable))
- a term originating simultaneously with civilisation, but meaning originally "to cultivate". Raymond Williams in his article Culture in Keywods idenified three types of culture:
High Culture:
- the identifying of pristine features of cultural capital
Mass Culture - the identifying of social groups as apparent by their collective features
Underlying Culture
- the everyday practices and features of a soial group not identifiable by the social group
Other academics have identified other types of culture:
Culture - the classical term by which to describe the "improving" and developing of individuals to the "civilized" world as opposed to the non-civilized world. The differentiation of social groups based on qualities of measuring civilized.
Culture and Civilization (French) - A concept adopted by the French to describe the apex of human achievement as being a culturally boundless
Kultur and Zivilization - the Germanic Re-interpretation the French concept of Civilization and Culture
Culture (English) - the modernistic sense by which cultures and even subcultures are collectively differentiated from one-another
Urbanism - a theory of society developed during the increasing concentration of the human population into cities. Dvelloped in the 19th-century and refined in the 10th-21st-century to try and analyse and understand the urban environment and interactions within and surrounding the urban. Commonly characterised with increased interaction of diverse groups, highly diverse, decreased social ties proportional to total population, and increased social interaction.
industrialisation - The continual expanding application of sophisticated technology designed to efficiently draw energy and raw materials out of the environment and fashion them for human use. Developed during the 19th century to define the shift of production methods, and the consciously acknowledged shift of class differentiation
Industrial Revolution - The shift of the means of production from local and family to inudstrial
the market revolution - the development of industrial factories and the movement of population to locations near said factories thus producing urbanism, and class-neighborhoods
Universalism (Philosophical) - The idea that universal truths are possible to detect, discern
Universalism (theology) - a deistic quality identifying all reaching capabilities
Relativism (philosophy) - the idea that there are no particular universal truths in reality, instead truths are particular to the time place and interpreter
Particularism (philosophical/epistemological) - the idea that certain truths are just innate and that the justification for such truths does not need validation
neoliberalism - a term oiginating i the 1960s-70s to describe a re-defined classical liberalism that argues that the success and failings of individuals are entirely their own doing
objectivism - (also known as Randianism)
(classic) liberalism - a subsect of the ideology f liberalism that argues for the freeing of individual rights through the deconstruction of restrictive forces such as Government
Born September 20, 1930 New York City, NY, USA
Married Beatrice Friedman May 25, 1964
Has a daughter
He attended Columbia University for his B.A. (1951) M.A. (1954 )and Ph. D (1959)
Taught at Columbia up until 1971, then started to teach at McGill in 1973, and then at Birmingham until his retirement in 1999
Member of the African Studies Association ; Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems and Civilization; École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris; International Sociological Association
African Studies Association: former head;
Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems and Civilization: former head;
École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris: Directeur d'études associé;
International Sociological Association: former president
Yale University: senior research scholar (since 2000)
Initially began research as a post-colonial scholar concerned with African affairs
Attended an African Yuth conference in 1951 that effected his opinion and shifted him away from post-colonialism in 1970
Started to instead work on the historical formation and maintenance of capitalism
Formerly post-colonualism
Formerly psychoanalysis (along with the work of Franz anon)
the development of global capitalism
Dependency Theory
World System Analysis (what he calls his study of world systems)
World System Theory
the study of complex systems
modern history
social movements and global social movements specifically
Wallerstein is considered one of the most prolific contemporary global movement theorists, and is coommonly held to the same value as: Pierre Bourdieu, France Fox-Piven Doug McAdam, and oam Chomsky when it comes to social movement and anti-globalisation movement
The Uncertainty of Knowledge (ch. 9-11):
On culture, culture ctudies, The social sciences (with special mention to sociology), and why we suck

On Culture (condensed ch. 9-11)
On Modern Culture and Society
Immanuel Wallerstein: A short Biography
His Life
Academic Achievements
Academic Interests
Academic Achievements in the public realm
On Culture
On "Global" Culture
The impact academia
Our role as social scientists (and our critics)
Our World System
(the issue with) sociology
sociology and the rise of neoliberalism
the concepts and ideas of sociology have existed well before its naming
However like its fellow study of anthropology, modern sociology has only existed since the enlightenment (in this case the 1650s, only being named in the 1750s, coming to its own in the early 19th-century, and only getting its own first department in early 20th-century)
Sociology came into its own during the late 19th-century and experienced its golden age from 1945-1965
During which it re-inforced structural
During its development to its current incarnation it has produced systems of beliefs that negatively impact society and research today such as the case of modernist research conclusions, the rise of laisse-faire ethics, the re-enforcement of class divisions, etc.
As stated before sociology as a discipline developed during a time where there was great (and often positive) positive speculation about the future of society
Several of the proponents of sociology took it on themselves to predict using a (classical) liberalistic viewpoint of a collectivist society based on societal worth, which would mean the worth of an individual's assets whether or not they were the producer or even worthy of those assets
This ideal of liberalism gave rise to the liberalism arguing that there is such a thing as a self-made man (Benjamin Franklin), who is capable of making it on their own (Robensonean economist), who was worth the cut of their jib despite whether it was their in the first place or even whether that jib may be more beneficial to others who may need it more (objectivism), because to them individual and collective results are mutually exclusive and the market is of its own worth (Frederich Haye), so its sink or swim (Milton Freedman), because taking the medicine is the way to cure society (Thatcherism & Reaganomics)
This was classical liberalism and it historically bled into the modern world courtesy of several of the ancestors of modern sociology and the implementation of world systems onto modern society
neoliberalism developed from the
By the time of te sociological golden age came the resurgence of the victorian era liberalist view
welcome to post-(WWII) America
The initiatives and ideals built from pre-wwii America
and then...
The Modern World System
pre-modernity - the development of modernity that happened during the early stages of the enlightenment
protomodernity - the development of societal fores into the modernist perspectives as developed in the 19-th century from World System forces
modernity- the expression of objective fact as being Universally true and discernably observable
postmodernisty - the development of the theoretical framework that came after modernism and questioned the capability to discern any objective truths within society
\Academia, the world system, and neoliberalism
The finalisation of neoliberalism
By the end of the 19th-century many things had changed
The gold-standard used in the previous had been discontinued by WWI
Former Empire powers let go or were forced out of most of their colonies by either other country's interference, by internal approval, or by civil war
Intrnational systems of re-enforcement of colonial powers (such as the British East India Company) were losing identity and power
Many new things were employed in the 20th-century to meet their economic restrictive powers:
The colonial enforcement of power-relations was as ever present as it was during colony times (e.g. the Philippine Government and trades were formed by American colonists prior to being "free'd" at which point the marjotiy of companies were owned by former colonizers and surrounding core countres)
Global agencies were developed to mantain power-system by the enforcement of morals onto predominantly peripheral countries
International courts were built to maintain power, and agencies like the British East IIdian Company were replaced by companies like the Anglo-Persian Oil Company ltd. (BP), Nike, and Apple
Antagonism between capitalism and stalinism/maoism was inevitably going to occur, (but the military parade with new Russian tanks during the after WWII didn't help)
Although wars and claiming of land by either side were a predominant part of the antagonistic functions of battle
It wasn't until the invasion of Hungary that there was true antagonism between the battling factions. This was because Hungary unlike other was a semi-peripheral country accepted as being European
Although all of the races (weapons, space, etc.) may have been the informed front for many, it was the ability of these core countries (modern colonial metropoles) to implement their peripheral and semi-peripheral (colonised)
In the end it came to which core could implement their peripheral landscape for their own pragmatic success
The capitalist society had a history of contacts at its implementation developed from past experiences contacts accumulated from multiple sources
Furthermore there devloped a lingering ideal of historical victorean rhetoric comprable to classical economics in its idealising of success, and focus on individual achievement . This rhetoric courtesy of the modernist perspective throughout its existance was then given the queality of being objectively factual
Neoliberalism initially became a thing of the public setting with the marketing of its rhetoric in political belief during the campaigns of Margaret Thatcher
Academically, the ideals and positions of neoliberalism were academically accredited as possesing the same propnents of objectivity previous paradigms of belief held
The Cultural Studies institute (CCCS) at the University of Birmingham along with other cultural studies groups came under attack both by academics and political fire for being Marxist, an ironic twist seeing as Cultural Studies formed out of The New Left movement which developed in the 1960s from the departure of several thinkers from Marxism
With the connection between classical liberalism and modernism developed istorically in the 19th-century, the development of a subset of classical liberalism that was put forth as objective fact that proposed that individuals were the rulers of their own outcomes was inevitable
The proposing it as an economic savior to the core countries as a means of maintaining economic order and detering what was argued asa means to prevent stagflation and usher in prosperity
The resolution of issues with academia
Academically the historical separation of faculties will most likely tae the form of one of three outcomes
Academically if we were to restrict education to such limited fields we would be restricting the prospects of success of academic study due to limited and narrow views of study
The Social sciences have the prospect of
Social science bridges the gap
From the machine: God(s): intervention for the academy
The system collapses under its historical formulation and its incapability to sustain contemporary narrow disciplinary interests
This will bridge but the gap between disciplines but will not merge the disciplines themselves
Modernism - the social thought that has existed since its development in the enlightenment period, that proports that universal truths both exist and are capable of being discerned
Postmodernism - A mode of thought developed in the 1960s-70s (but has links to theorists in the 19th century) to describe a belief against the capability to discern truth from the outside world
Civilization - an idea developed by the Greeks to identify citizens of Greece from other by their means of speech (Greek) and their conceptual understanding of law (Greek)., but has expanded throughout history to adapt a re-interpretation for any society willing and possessing the resources to implement it.
Barbarism - A concept originating from the Greeks to identify individuals who lack understanding of Greek law and the Greek tongue, possesses negative connotation. Was .expanded to encompass the characterization of social groups and cultures that fail to meet the self-made qualities of a particular "civil", or "western" society. Commonly took the form of diferentiation based on characterstics of groups whether those charcteristics be universally identified, or figments of their concievers imginations.
(Foucauldian) power
1. science
Timeline of Sociology:
The academic routes that had formed in academia were beginning to break down dividing the theological doctrines of academia into
With the development of Republics and democracies in a western society (technically first introduced in China in the 1300s) with Britain in 1650
With the rise of prevalent counter-cultural ideas brought on by the increasingly prevalent enlightenment period, and increasing amounts of democratic and republic states came the increase of disciplinary proficiency in particular fields of discipline including the desire to produce secular scientific inquiries, secular political views, and judicial law
By the 1750s, academia had become something of a secular institution
Sociology developed as a thought in the late-18th-century shortly after the French-Revolution as a means of inquiring on the societal factors that had brought about the many revolutions of the time along with; the decolonisation processes, the impacts of colonization, and the persistence of colonial power-relations; the soon to be predominant industrial revolution, market revolution, and urbanization; the shift of migratory patterns
With the rise of democratic states came the development of theoretical formatting
Most academics held several titles that were not used as disciplinary identities but as identities for their knowledge and interests. For instance Adam Smith along with being the founding father of classical-economics was alsoa: moral philosopher, political philosopher, and ethicist.
Notable social theorists include: Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Denis Diderot, Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert, Charles-Louis Montesquie, Joseph-Marie, comte de Maistre, Giovan Battista Vico
Modernism became prevalent in the social sciences producing many a theorist who used Newtnian methods of analysis to deduce truth
The economist division of the social sciences along with social science and sociology re-enforced power-relations as being objectively justified
Although christianity has been separated from academia, the ideals and thoughts of academia still rang rue up to and well beyond the 1920s
Albion W. Small founded the first department of sociology in the University of Chicago
The overarching results were the exodus of individuals who lacked the categorisation as sociologists: this produced a sect of social workers, and policy scientists
types of knowldge were divided and distinguished thus creating more distinct divisions of philosophy and even more subdivisions within those
For instance much f the modernist disciplines of sociology were developed during this period (identify the names)
Notable sociological theorists(who were alive and publishing)): Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Fredric Engels, Lewis Henry Morgan, Max Weber, Emile Durkhiem, Georg Simmel, Jane Addams, C.P. Gillman, George Herbert Mead, John Stuart Mills, W.E.B. DuBois, Lester F. Ward, Edvard Alexander Westermarck, Vladimir Lenin, Thorstine Veblen, Charles Cooley, Georges Sorel, William Summers, Soren, Kierkgaard, Francis Galton, Ferdinand Tönnies, sir Henry James Summer Maine, Edward B. Tylor, Fredrich Netzeche, Henry George, and Ludwig Gumplowicz, and many many others
Timeline of Sociology
Please Note:
The historical occurrences of the past still have effects on the future events
Social theorists even after death still have influence on whatever contemporary theists are thinking
Ideas and thoughts in the st have a habit of being re-presented and represented for a contemporary audience (social scientists are particularly bad at this))
The dates at the top of each slide are arbitrary numbers not to be taken as finite starts and stops
put your arms and legs out of the ride at your own risk
THIS IS NOT a concise list: Despite what I know of history and what was available at the time, the history, historicity, archeology, and geneology of anything
The overarchingg themes and shifts will be condensed at the end
Overarching Themes
The shift to modernism was (as most shifts are) a slow process by which the accumulation of several separate features - the development of a public academy, the division of philosophy, the justified existence of science, the division of forms of knowledge into newly founded and divided disciplines, the discrediting of knowledge based on moralistic discussion, the validating of the scientific method, the typifying of virtue and vice to avoid prosecution of "hurtful/hateful research", the shift of society from a feudal or mercantile system to a capitalist system, the increase of group interactions, the increased power-relations between groups, the moralistic justification of power-relations and abuse of power, the simultaneous increase of social representation and disguising of social issues in society, and so much more - had produced a collective a social reality that idealised the scientific modernistic research of academia and an ideology that characterised the future as forever moving forward
The development of sociology into an academically credible discipline
A predominant shift into the more contemporary divide of disciplinary studies as acknowledged by its development of faculty connect
Standardization and cementing of modernist value into the research of academic studies.
The complete separation of social workers, and policy scientists fom the discipline of sociology limitting the types of study to more academically (for the time) credible data
Had the Golden age of sociology (1945-1965) occured, and during which time the formation of particular types of study remained pretty well consistant to the ideas initially bfounded in the 19th-century, but given process through refinement
By the late 1950s academia had began to shift away from its modernistic tendencies
In the later years of this period (starting 1945, gaining power in the 50s) was a pushback against the modernist view proporten society and the prevalence of belief of objectivityin not just the social sciences, but also in the
sociology and other social sciences begin to develop a pseudoscience identityt in the realm of the public
Notable sociological theorists(who were alive and publishing)):George Hebert Mead, Melville Jean Herskovits, Karl Planyi, Karl Mannheim, Marcel Mauss, Martin Heidegger, Antoio Gramsci, Sigmund Freud, Robert E. Park, Harold Dwight Lasswell, Helen Lynd, Alfred Reginald Brown, Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, Norbert Elias, Fei Xiatong, Edward C. Hayes, Ferdinand Tonnies, ,G.H. Mead, C. Wright Mills, Noam Chomsky, Max Horkheimer, Alexander Saunders, Edwin Sutherland, Louis Wirth, Slavoj Zizek, Alfred Weber, Victor Branford, Georg Lukacs,Max Scheler, Jean-Paul Sartre, Bronisław Malinowski, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Karl Popper, Albion Smalls, William Summer, W.I. Thomas, Robert Redfeild, Leon Trotsky,, Joseph Schumpter, Marc Bloch, Walter Benjamin, George Gurvitch, Wilhelm Reich, Stuart Dodd, Gunner Myrdal, David Glass, Alvin Gouldner, Erving Goffman
The shifts that were felt within society were all grounded in historical formations and interpretted by the here and now
Power-relations remained historically grounded only being re-interpreted slightly by the recent history
To justify oppression: racism became strong ethnic ties, classism became less visible to the wealthy class with the division of neighborhoods by economic bracket and sexism although acknowledged more so than historically that was typified into the social consciousness and thus persisted
Discrimination is still a large part of society and academia in part because of these historical cultural ties
The disciplinary division of philosophy became hegemonically imbued into the social order
Social Movements, protests, demonstrations, political shifts, economic push backs to classical economics, the complexities of social ties, sex, deviant behaviour/lifestyles, pop culture, societal shifts from the 1960s needed to be explained and so sociology divided itself more to analyze the recent changes to society
Overall there was a shift in what was observed in sociological studies from the classical practices of looking at the divisionsf society based on materials,social kinship, and such stuff; to one which focused on the ideals, group associations, social interactions on micro-scales, deviance, and stuff like that
The academic study came to envelope a concept of criticizing the previous generations of study for their blind obedience to the belief of modernism
Postmodernism became a prevalent and identified category of thought in academia
Theos have come to associate postmodernism along with several other categories such as being: late-capitalist rhetoric
neoliberalism was produced and nurtured from the thoughts of Hayek to the application of Freeman, Thatcher, and Raegan
The separation of historically formed boundaries between former subdivisions of philosophy are beginning to breakdown allowing interaction between the faculties of humanities, social science, and natural science
New divisions were created within sub-disciplines to discuss the changing world
Notable sociological theorists(who were alive and publishing)): , Thomas Kuhn, Stuart Hall, George Friedman, Frances Fox-Piven, Erving Goffman, Jurgen Habermas, Clifford Geerts, Michel Foucault, Jean-Francois Lyotard, Jean Baudrilllard, Anthony Giddens, Viviana Zelizer, Peter Berger,Herbert Marcuse, Harold Garfinkel, Richard Sennett, Maurice Duverger, Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt, Joan Woodward, Sydney Tarrow, Charles Tilly, Doug McAdam, Loic Wacquant, Ian Hacking, Pierre Bourdieu, Thedore Aldurno, Herbert Blumer, Noam Chosky, Slavoj Zizek
Culture is a vague expression characterising the interpretation and categorisation of social groups
Three main ways of defining culture usually include
High Culture
Mass Culture - Culture shared everyone in a particular social group
typified culture -
Wallerstein in the uncertainty of knowledge categories the vague expression of (mass) culture as having at least a connection of ideals between individuals within a social group
The exertion of ideals onto other groups is considered the production of a culture (e.g. Canadian law) or even "global" culture (e.g. United Nations)
Academia as a part of society possesses a culture - a connection of individuals based on social groups -, and each faculty, discipline, and study is likewise encased in cultures and association to other social groups
Furthermore there is the prioritizing of particular disciplines based on the world-system, financial backing
The full-impact on academia can be felt by the culture in disciplines:
there exists a power-relations to those that maintain the standard system and have historically maintained the standard system, and those disciplines that haven't
The practices by which we prioritise and praise thoughts comes from their historical associations to modern society
"A spectre is haunting Western academia (...), the spectre of the Cartesian subject." ~ (Zizek 1999, p.1)"
The prduction of the Newtonean Method has produced
The historical extremes of humanities and the social sciences
Since at the latest early 19th-century, the universalist mentality towards this global culture was adhered to based on its invisibility to the public's eye courtesy of modernism's expression of it being considered objectively factual
The ruling powers from historical systems of power persist their power through the enforcement of moral judgements by institutional control (the law in Canada is very protestant with the exception of Quebec where it is intersperced with catholicism on provincial law)
Globally the enforcement of laws is by the power-relaton expsed culturally by the re-inforcement of historical power-relation. (Former colonies commonly remain in the "global south", whilst
We re-enforce structural systems whether consciously or not to maintain these relations (the enforcement of NATO and its sibling agreements, the persistence of production and consumer countries)
Sociology as a discipline was developed during very uppity period of life as it took place during major society changes
Much of the respective initial theorists that originated formed during the 19th-century verification of sociology took to it to identify a fruitful outcome to the future as they had all separately predicted
We looked to the past to expect the future, and from this much of the outcomes saw the death of former particularisms
The predictions of our discipline that were given the greatest backing and attention were those that argued for the status quo and could be implemented into law
Out of this rose from the social sciences classical liberalism which proported value of individual to societal worth
We as social scientists have (for a long time) been implementing representing, and re-presenting the works of historical theorists for the current here and now without understanding of the experiencd here and experienced now
Sociology as a culture is sometimes often directed by the desired backing of research bed on historical frameworks from its previous theorists
The current contemporary studies of sociology has moved to an identification of post-studies with the rise of postmodernism and critiques of liquid modernity
The current society has come to develop such an international perspective possessing transient features and research has come to encompass this
The research conducted in modern society vastly spreads its disciplinary practices far more than historical sociology had ever done.
With the rise of post-studies also came the decline of Newtonean validation and objective truths, instead opting for the decoding of historically objectively conceived facts to deduce their subjectivity and denote th subjectivity of all future knowledge
Whether a global culture is proficient, or even present however is a moralistic, political, and an intellectual question
Intellectually - there are contradictions between the workings of the interaction between the interwoven ideals of society
Universalism and Particularism would deny the particular methods by which such information is rendered as its origins are not just subjectively localised, byu implemented in subjective roles.
assuming the here and now of objective fact would deny the applicability of local thoughts onto the global stage
Moral - due to the subjective flaw surrounding global cultures implementation the practice of it would be ethically pragmatic if consciously rendered, yet would only be .
Political - the implementation of any global culture would hae to be produced by a standard of thought that is itself centered around subjective universalism

The world system developed from the historical placement of the enlightenment period and also the development of modern restrictive power-relations to take over the expiring classical ideas
For instance the rise of prevalence of economics, psychology, and sociology came to acquire and develop a political understanding of modern society through the diagnosing and predicting of fronts to assist the future. Of these came ideas that were based on modernistic viewpoints that argued for the status quo
Out of the 19th-cetury the social sciences developed which in turn produced historical divisins of kowledge that carried on the tradition of classical philosophy with the production of knowledge that was both considered good and true
Of these: sociology, and economics in particular developed and emphasized the pwer of a category of liberalism called classical-liberalism
Two main proponents of classical Liberalism from the 19-th century are Herbert Spencer, and Thorstine Veblen
classical-liberalism developed since then bled into different combinations of historical ideas and roles becoming (amongst others) objectivism, Hayekean economics, Thatcherism, Reaganomics, and neoliberalism
In the 19th-century there came the rise of several major shifts
In academia the division of academic disciplines from one-another became much more pronounced than previously
Publically came the rise of classical-liberalism due to financial backing and public permittance of its belief over other beliefs
Opposition to classical liberalism formed in conservativism and Marxism. However
Much of the practices of 19th-century Western Society still ring true as some of the most prominant parts of contemporary society, including the majority of the world systems that were developed in 19th-century Western Society and still exists today.
The cultural costruction of society also was developed predominantly from the decisions and disciplines valued during the 19th-century: classical-economics, classical psychology, modern virtues & vices, the international trade relations, modern powerhouses, the development of scientific rhetoric all still exist today with little alteration (in comparison to previous historical systems)
"[A]t the beginning of November 2001, there was a series of meetings between White House advisers and senior Hollywood executives with the aim of co-ordinating the war effort and establishing how Hollywood could help in the "war against terrorism" by getting the right ideological message across not only to Americans, but also to the Hollywood public around the globe — the ultimate empirical proof that Hollywood does in fact function as an "ideological state apparatus."" (Zizek 2002 p. 16)
Wallerstein and neo-liberalism
1. What are some of the forces put on academia described by Wallerstein that shift the perspectives in academia? are there any other influences to academia that Wallerstein could have overlooked? elaborate
2. How would you criticize or support Wallerstein's perspective on the World System and its influencen knowledge.
3. Name other contemporary social theorists who share similar viewpoints to Wallerstein as expressed in this book?
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