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The Fifties

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Alexa Jenkins

on 25 April 2013

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Transcript of The Fifties

Desi Arnaz
Fred Astaire
Gene Autry
Lauren Bacall
Lucille Ball
Humphrey Bogart
Marlon Brando
Johnny Carson
Bing Crosby
Bettye Davis
Doris Day
James Dean Art Movements and Artists Lifestyles, Traditions and Habits Clothing and Accessories Designers of the 1950's By: Amanda Kohl and Alexa Jenkins The 1950s Technology and Scientific Innovations Hair and Makeup Designers Social Movements and Current Events Televisions Facts:
The 1950s is known as The Golden Age of Television.
By 1950 4.4 million families in America had a television set.
It influenced room design, leisure activities and eating habits, families snacked in front of the TV set.
Television replaced the fireplace as the focal point in the living room. American Bandstand
Dennis the Menace
Father Knows Best
Howdy Doody
I Love Lucy
Leave it to Beaver
The Mickey Mouse Club
The Price is Right
Wheel of Fortune Art Movements and Artists Clothing and Accessories Pop Art (1955-1985)- used aspects of mass culture such as advertising and comic books, canned goods, science fiction, and cultural objects. Emphasizes banal or kitschy elements of any given culture. Uses irony and makes comments about consumerism. Seen in Europe first. Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein. Sandra Dee
Troy Donahue
Clint Eastwood
Clark Gable
Audrey Hepburn
Rock Hudson
Gene Kelly
Grace Kelly
Jerry Lewis
Shirley MacLaine
Dean Martin
Marilyn Monroe The Record Player Minimalism- Movement in sculpture and painting, emphasized extreme simplification of form and color.
Surrealism (1924-1955)- Continued, dreams and fantasies.
Abstract expressionism (1945-1960)- Expressed emotion and evoked spiritual responses.
Op-art: Optical art (1958-1969)- Created optical illusions and conveyed s sense of movement.
Performance Art (1958-present day)- Theatrical performance with no plot or story presented to a live audience, often to express a political or social point. Facts:
After the Second World War, the record and phonograph industry was revived
Vinyl disks were introduced and new cutting techniques made it possible to squeeze more grooves onto a record.
Singles became the preferred record for for sales to teenagers, who, during the 1950s, emerged as an influential market for popular music.
Most record players available after 1950 were equipped for three or even four speeds. Other Types of Art in the 1950's Social Movements and Current Events Technology of 1950s 1950
Credit cards were invented for diners by Ralph Schneider
Power steering invented by Francis W. Davis
First video tape recorder invented by Charles Ginsburg
The first patent for bar codes is issued to Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver
The first diet drink is sold
Edward Teller and team build the hydrogen bomb
Radial tires are invented
First musical synthesizer invented by RCA
David Warren ivented the black box flight recorder
Transistor radio invented by Texas Instruments
Oral contraceptives invent the pill
First non-stick teflon pan produced
The solar cell invented by Chaplin, Fuller and Pearson
Ray Kroc started McDonalds Women's Hairstyles of the 1950's Pin curls and soft waves
Bob haircuts with
or without bangs
Heavily influenced
by movie stars and teen
Short hairstyles
Flat in the crown
area to accommodate
Heavily lacquered bouffant
styles by the end of the
A-Symmetrical Styles Christian Dior (1905-1957)
New Look continued throughout the decade
A new collection emerged every six months, new lines for Spring and Fall
Oval Line, Princess Line, Sinuous Line, and Profile Line (1952)
H-Line (1954)
A-Line and Y-line (1955)
Trapeze Line (1958) by protege Yves Saint Laurent
used several yards of fabric Designers Lifestyles Traditions and Habits Women's Looks Debbie Reynolds The Girl Next Door- Debbie Reynolds, Natalie Wood, Teenagers

The Gamine- Audrey Hepburn

The Sex Kitten- Marilyn Monroe, Sophia Loren Emphasis on "The American Dream" fueled by consumerism was at an all time high
The American dream was ownership of a contemporary home filled with mass produced marvels of modern comfort
Americans were buying 75% of all cars and appliances on Earth
More leisure time which required a more diverse wardrobe (sportswear)
Events were centered around the home (barbeques and cocktail parties)
Dancing and movie going for singles and teenagers
Rise of the middle class
Fascination with science and technology, everything was "streamlined"
Boom in the advertising industry including marketing geared towards teenagers for the first time
Large scale production of man made fibers including Dacron and new uses for Nylon.
After the war Americans went on a spending spree centered on home and family
Women were encouraged to quit their jobs and return to homemaking
Families moved to expanding suburbs Streamlined Appliances, Apparel, and Cars Advancements in technology influenced home appliances, apparel, and automobiles Make-Up of the 1950's 1955
Tetracycline invented
Optic Fiber invented
First computer hard disk used
The hovercraft invented by Christopher Coskerell
Bette Nesmith Graham invented "Mistake Out," later renamed Liquid Paper, to paint over mistakes made with a typewriter
Fortran (computer language) invented
Computer modem invented
Laser invented by Gordon Gould
Hula hoop invented by Richard Knerr and Arthur Melin
Integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce
Internal pacemaker invented by Wilson Greatbatch
Barbie doll invented
Microchip invent by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce Men's Clothing Women's Clothing Teen Clothing Dancing The Twist
Lindy Hop
The Stroll Cars of the Fifties Nylon was used for:
Stockings or "Nylons"
Men's underwear, socks, and sportswear.
Nylon stockings were now referred to as "nylons". Coco Chanel
Re-opened her house in 1954 with mixed reviews.
The Chanel look: straight skirt, with or without box pleats, single breasted cardigan jacket, with or without lapels, with braid or ribbon trims of contrasting color on edges, hems, cuffs, and pockets worn with a blouse.
Made real clothes for real women that reflected everyday life. Emphasized ease, comfort, and practicality. Christian Dior with models wearing
his designs, 1950 The Wardrobe of a Typical Middle-Income American Woman 1 Winter Weight Long Coat (fur trimmed or not)
1 Spring Weight Coat
1 Raincoat
5 House Dress Type Dresses
4 Afternoon "Dressy" Type Dresses
3 Suits
3 Skirts
6 Blouses
3 Sweaters
6 Slips
2 Robes
2 Petticoats
5 Nightgowns
8 Pairs of Panties
5 Brassieres Teddy Boys
Bobby Soxers
Ivy Leaguers
Beatniks Marilyn Monroe Beauty Ads From the 1950's 2 Corsets or Girdles
6 Pairs of Nylon Stockings
3 Pairs of Sport Type Socks
3 Pairs of Dress Gloves
1 Bathing Suit
3 Pairs of Play Shorts
1 Pair of Slacks
1 Play Suit
7 Pairs of Shoes
4 Handbags
A Dozen Pieces of Costume Jewelry
4 Hats
Various Scarves and Belts Men's Hairstyles Well groomed man- clean shaven, hair short at the sides and back but full at the top.
Beatniks- beards of varying lengths
Teenagers- military style crew cut
Ivy Leaguer- soft bangs swept to the side at the brow
Greasers and Teddy Boys- longer, combed in a sweep around the ears and into a point at the neck called a D.A. or ducktail. Pompador fuller sides covering ear tips and sideburns down to the earlobes. Popular Television Shows and Actors Entertainment Dancing
Drive-In Movies Music Classinc pop declined in popularity after rock and roll entered the mainstream
Doo Wop enterd the pop charts Drive-In Movies Kitchen Appliances Beatniks What they wore:

Turtle neck or polo neck sweaters in black
Crumpled shirts
Black and white stripes,
trousers, khaki pants or jeans
beards of varying lengths.

Black leotards,
"sloppy Joe" sweater over long black skirts,
Tight straight corduroy pants
Ballet flats.

Both genders wore black sunglasses, berets and turtle necks and jeans. Typical Family Homes Suburban neighborhoods were neatly organized and lined with uniform houses
Backyards had a barbeque grill and matching patio furniture
Kitchens had color-coordinated appliances often in pastel colors
Danish-modern living rooms were centered around television sets and hi-fi stereos
Children's rooms were filled with toys and games
Most families had two cars; one for men to take to work and the other for the housewife to take children to school and make trips to the supermarket Lifestyles Teenagers Asserted independence and self-awareness with purchasing power
They bought millions of rock and roll records, went to movies, ate with friends at drive-in restraunts and soda shops, and chose trendy fashions that separated them from older and younger generations
Mainstream teenage rebellion was rock and roll
Teen music shocked parents and offended establishment Women Their dream was to be perfect housewives and mothers, have children, a beautiful house
They would only have to fight to get and keep a husband
They were freed by science and labor -saving appliances, dangers of child birth and illnesses of past generations
She was beautiful, healthy and educated
She had everything a woman dreamed of Men They embraced conformity with a masculine ideal defined by dominance order and control
They are the bread winners of the family
Masculine identity was defined by marriage, family and a suburban home filled with consumer goods
Success was determined by the quality and quantity of consumer goods he could provide for his family
Lawn care and landscaping repsented the male attachment to the outdoors
The barbeque grill represented the role of family provider Slang Terms Actor- show off
Agitate the gravel- to leave
Ankle biter- a child
Ape- to get really mad
Are you writing a book?- you are using too many words
Baby- cute girl or term of emdearment
Backseat Bingo- Necking in a car
Bad News- Depressing person
Bash- great party
Bent Eight- V-8 engine
Big Daddy- older person
Big Tickle- really funny
Bit- an act
Blast- good time
Blow off- defeat in a race
Bobbed- shortened
Boss- great
Bug- you bug me
Burn Rubber- to accelerate quickly Wide borders
Big patterns
Bold colors
Command collar style
French cuffs
Center button pleats
Bowling and Hawaiian print shirts
Slacks with a crease
Bermuda shorts
Cardigan sweaters and sweater vests Teddy Boys Skinny or bootlace neck tie
Curly brimmed bowler hat
Narrow tight trousers worn short to show garish socks
Long slightly flared overcoat with velvet collars, natural shoulders Food and Drinks Popular foods of the 1950s included:
Jay's Potato Chips
Bazooka Bubblegum
Rootbeer Floats
Coca-cola (which at the time contained cocaine)
and Frenchfries Musicians
Frank Sinatra
Gene Autry
Nat King Cole
Patsy Klein
Jonny Cash
Perry Como
Patti Paige
Louis Armstrong
Judy Garland Tony Bennett
Bing Crosby
Dean Martin
Peggy Lee
Doris Day
Rosemary Clooney
Pat Boone
Jerry Lee Lewis
Buddy Holly Greasers Guys:
Leather motorcycle jackets
White t-shirts
Jeans sometimes with the cuffs rolled up or dungarees
Black boots
Pompador and D.A. hairstyles
Comb in pocket

Felt skirt with a poodle, record player or music note decal
Tight blouse
Their boyfriend's leather jacket
An abundance of eyeshadow and lipstick Ivy Leaguers Tailored knee length shorts
Knee-high socks
Business coat
White dress shirt
Wing tips, medallion tips and tassel loafers
Hats with tapered crowns and narrow brims
Crocheted and knit foulard ties in school colors
Soft swept bangs parted at at the side or the brow Bobby Soxers Girls:
Black and white saddle oxfords
White ankle socks (bobby Socks)
Sleeveless or puffed sleeved blouse
Pleated skirt or drindle dress
Lots of petticoats
Cat-eye glasses and charm bracelets
Ponytail or bouffant hairstyle Suits Early Fifties
Shapeless, tubular natural shoulders, narrow lapels and straight hanging lines.
The gray flannel suit was a favorite.
Ivy Leaguers- Single breasted suits.
Late Fifites
The Continental Look- Shaped, shorter jackets, natural shoulders, cutaway front, high-cut armholes peaked lapels andgled pockets and cuffed sleeves with tapered trousers.
Younger men- tailored knee-length shorts, knee-high socks with business coats, white dress shirts and foulard tie.
Summer looks- Before airconditioning, business shorts (bermuda shorts) and knee lenght wool socks. The two-and-a half piece suit: matching shorts jacket and pants. Short sleeve business shirt. Formal Wear Formal Wear
Tuxedos cut in tubular, straight hanging lines of the Ivy League suit. Later shaped like the Continental Suit.
Tail coats seldom worn.
The Morning Suit- Cutaway, in charcoal or black coat, striped gray trousers and puffed ascot (rarely seen except weddings.)
Only color and texture changed.Black or midnight blue wor winter and white for summer. Vivid prints and bold plaids for sports jackers.
Tuxedo coats always worn with black or dark blue trousers.
Cumberbunds and matching ties in vibrant colors. Alternative to the bow tie was the "cossover". Sportswear Sleepwear:
Coolie trousers
Mandarin Pajamas
Silk Kimono Robes

Knitted or woven union suits
Elastic waist boxers
White knit briefs
Knit crew neck or v-neck t-shirts
Bikini style skants (molded to the body with stripes on genitals and buttocks.) Sleepwear and Underwear Outerwear Overcoats in gray, medium brown and medium tan
Silk top coats
Car coats (cropped at the wrist)
Duffel coat (duffer)
Trenchcoats Accessories Ties;
Wild prints and strong patterns
Hand painted with tropical landscapes and hunting scenes
Bowties in vivid plaids, stripes and checks
Telescope crowns on straw, boater and other hats
Summertime hats had colorful bands
Snap brim hat in common brown with black band
Thin soles with low heels
Wing tips, bluchers, and top siders
Continental suit- chiseled square toe
Other Accessories:
Watches, cufflinks, gold and silver collar pins and wrist watches Casual Wear Fabrics:
Synthetic yarns blended with natural fibers for a durable, moisture, wrinkle and stain resistant fabrics.
Nylon was most common
Other fabrics: orlon, acrilan, creslan, zefran, and rayon in wool and cotton blend. Sports shirts in vivid colors, prints and bold patterns.
Sports wear trousers in 5 lengths-regular cuffed, casual, bermuda shorts, cropped and beachers all in multicolrs, paisley and madras print.
Swimsuits- 2 variets: short baggy boxer and the knit brief. Both cover the navel. Outer Wear Casual Wear Accessories Sleep Wear and Underwear Sports Wear Women's Wear
The hourglass silhouette predominates the decade
Shown off in either form fitting clothes or exaggerated shapes made with the help of petticoats, corsets or girdles, and brasier
Design based off a men's staple: The Shirtwaist Dress
Emphasis on the waist, small rounded shoulders, and the bust
Both casual and dressy versions of the shirtwaist dress were staples in a woman's closet
Dresses worn with petticoats to increase a skirts volume and girdles to make the waist appear smaller
Dresses could also be worn more casually without a petticoat called a house dress
Post-war feminine look began with Christian Dior's New Look
New synthetic fabrics became more common, heralded for their easy care, wash and wear properties
America began to lead in mass produced quality clothing
Ordering from catalogs such as Sears and Montgomery Ward Women's Wear Women's Wear The wiggle or pencil skirt/dress:
Sexier look
High and tight pleated waist
Form fitting through hips and slightly tapered at the knee Fabrics:
Wool Rockabilly Refers to one of the oldest styles of Rock 'N' Roll
Early 1950's
Blend of Country and Western and Rhythm and Blues
Pointed the way for classic Rock 'N' Roll Fur for evening wear was very popular especially mink, maufacture of faux fur became huge during this time Accessories Hats:
Pillbox- Small, brimless, round, straight sides and level top
Lots of embellishments, veils or netting
Fur or feather trim
Floral decorations toward end of decade Shoes:
Stiletto heels
Most women wore heels or pumps
Wooden Sandals
Plastic Shoes
Pointed Toes 1950
War in Korea
Confirmation of Hydrogen Bomb Program by President Truman
Pucci opens fashion house of Emilio Pucci
USA average annual salary $2992
New Beauty Competition: Miss World
US and Japan sign treaty of peace
Churchill returns to power in England
Dwight Eisenhower elected President
Teddy Boys seen around London
Polio Vaccine created
Queen Elizabeth II crowned in June (seen by millions thanks to television)
Mount Everest conquered by Hillary and Tensing
McCarthy witch hunt hearings take place in US
New regime takes over Russia after death of Stalin
Dupont began commercial production of Dacron at a plant in North Carolina
US Segragation made illegal in public schools
Coco Chanel reopened her Paris fashion house 1955
Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus in Montegomery, Alabama
Civil Rights Campaign underway in US
"Rock Around the Clock" by Bill Haley and His Comets comes out and begins the birth of Rock 'N' Roll
James Dean dies in car accident
60% of Americans are in the "middle class" earning $3000-$10,000 per year
The Suez Crisis: The Suez Canal was nationalized and control taken from Britain and France
Elvis Presley becomes internationally world acclaimed star
Prince Rainier III of Monaco marries film star Grace Kelly
Sputnik I the first satelite to orbit Earth launched into Space by the Russians.
The Space Age becomes a reality
Christian Dior dies
Givenchy launchs famous Sack Line, a forerunner of 1960's dresses
Trapeze Line introduced
Alaska and Hawaii become states Guys:
Tan chino pants
V-neck sweater
White buck shoes or top siders Y-line A-line Swing Coats
Fitted or loose
Natural colors
Woolens and tweeds
Loose styles doubled as materity wear Silhouttes:
1954: H-line- A slender tunic suit with a slim skirt that later became a 20's style dropped waist dress with shorter hemline
1955: A-line- Triangular silhouette, narrow and fitted at the top and widening out from the bust or waist in a straight line to the hem
1955: Y-line- Wider at the shoulder and slimer at the hem
1957: The Sack- Straighter waist, was later refined into a mini shift dress that would dominate the 1960's
1958: The Trapeze- Swinging dress, almost triangular in shape
1958: The Empire Line- Loved by teenagers who looked child-like, terms like "baby doll" applied to it A, S, and H lines Audrey Hepburn Gloves:
In short, medium and long lengths
Short for day wear
Long and medium for evening wear Jewelry:
Costume Jewelry and plastic jewelry
Clip-on and stud earrings
Snap Beads
Cat-Eye Glasses/Sunglasses Y-line Hubert Givenchy:
Introduced the Sack 1957
Design became basis of 1960's shift dress look Cristobal Balenciaga:
Designed tunic dress which later developed into the chemise dress of 1957
Empire line in 1959 Jacques Fath:
Inspired by Art
Swing Coat Cardigans:
Could be worn with any type of skirt or pants
Had lots of beading details, specialty buttons, and designs Foundation Garments:
Stiff Nylon Petticoats
Girdles for the nipped in waist look Pin Curl Diagram Hooded home dryer Emphasis on eyes and lips
Clean face
Elongated Egyptian style winged eye liner
Elongated and often pointed eyebrows
Red, pink and coral lip shades
Corners of the mouth turned up
False eyelashes often worn
Nail polish matched lipstick color
Coordinated with the "streamlined" look of the decade Taffeta
Denim Ball gowns in white, black, pale pink and blue
Strapless, halter, batteau, single sleeve necklines
Tea and floor lengths Formal Wear Mix and match clothing
Summer dresses: wide skirts gathered at the waist or cut in a circle
Summer prints: gingham, polka dots, and floral prints
Wide elastic or narrow belts
Narrow skirts for Autmn in gray, beige, black and white
Suit jackets fitted or semi-fitted, sharply darted, just below the hip with matching skirts , Casual skirts narrow or full
Narrow ankle length pants
Mid-calf pants or pedal pushers
short shorts
bermuda shorts: mid thigh
loose printed or knit tops
one or two-piece swimsuits sometimes with a full skirt Windbreaker Overcoat Duffel The New Look
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