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Philosophy Timeline

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Grace Haliena

on 19 January 2015

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Transcript of Philosophy Timeline

2000 BC
445 BC
121 AD
354 AD
500 BC
Philosophy Timeline
The Great Questions
How was the world created?

Is there a purpose to creation or meaning to life?

How should we live?
Fatalist/Syncretism
Fatalist: all natural processes follow the laws of nature; therefore, man must accept his destiny. Nothing happens accidentally.

Syncretism: fusion of creeds/ideas
Mythology
Imagined gods (super-humans) to explain nature & the struggle between good/evil.
Skepticism/ Rationalist
Skepticism: man can't know the truth about problems of nature and the universe

Rationalist: believes human reason is the source of knowledge
Renaissance
rebirth of art, culture, and humanism of antiquity with new emphasis on the uniqueness of individual man. Philosophy and science split from religion
Hellenism
300 year period in which the Greek language, thought, and culture dominated the Mediterranean.
Ethics/Determinism
Ethics: study of moral conduct for living a good life

Determinism: belief that everything that happens is predetermined
Abraham
2000 BC
1st great monotheist
God makes a covenant with him
God gives Abraham land and his blessing
Moses
1200 BC
deliverer of Israel from Egyptians
return the focus to Yahweh
Yahweh is the only God to be worshiped
God gave him 10 commandments
Thales
585 BC
concerned with the nature of the physical world
all things are full of gods
element: water
Anaximander
585 BC
concerned with the physical world
The Boundless which comes before & after all things
Our world is one of many in the boundless
Anaximenes
570 BC
concerned with the physical world
element: air
water: condensed air
earth: compressed water
Parmenides
540 BC
concerned with nature and its processes
no actual change in nature
everything that exists has always existed
senses are unreliable
rationalist
Heraclitus
540 BC
concerned with the physical world
nature in constant "flow"
senses are reliable
world made of opposites
"Logos" which guides everything
Empidocles
490 BC
concerned with the physical world
change happens; basic elements never change
4 elements: earth, air, fire, water
2 forces: love binds together, strife separates them
Anaxagoras
500 BC
nature from infinite number of particles
"order" "mind" is the forces that creates nature
Herodotus
484 BC
fate doesn't control destiny
world events aren't caused by the gods
1st historian to search for natural explanations
wrote about the Greco-Persian Wars
Socrates
470 BC
One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing
rationalist
Socratic discussions
you will do the right thing cause you want to make yourself happy
Democritus
460 BC
concerned with nature and its processes
nature flows
made up of small particles: atoms
atoms: solid, immutable, indivisible
soul atoms
materialist
Hippocrates
460 BC
fate doesn't control destiny
illness isn't a punishment of gods
moderation; healthy lifestyle
author of Hippocratic Oath
Plato
428 BC
pupil of Socrates
wrote "Dialogues" & "Republic"
founded Plato's Academy
relationship between the eternal & what flows
dualist
the world of ideas
rationalist
Aristotle
384 BC
study of nature/1st great biologist
reality is what we perceive with our senses
form= physical traits things have in common
substance= individual characteristics to a thing
first mover
happiness: life of enjoyment, free citizen, philosopher
government: monarchy, aristocracy, democracy
Antisthenes
445 BC
founded Cynics
Diogenes
412 BC
most famous Cynic
lived in a barrel
Zeno
334 BC
founded Stoics
man is part of Logos
monist
fatalist
Epicurus
341 BC
founded Epicureans
pleasure ethic + atom theory
no interest in politics or community
Buddha
560 BC
founder of Buddhism
life is an unbroken succession of processes which keep people in a state of change
Plotinus
205 BC
founder of Neoplatonism
light & dark
dark is the absence of light
divine mystery: soul fuses with God
Cicero
106 BC
Roman orator and statesman
Stoic
formed the concept of humanism
humanism: individual is the central focus
Paul
5 BC
God revealed himself to man
God reached out to man through Christ
belief in the atoning death of Christ means salvation
Christ is fully God and fully man
Jesus
3 BC
establishing a new covenant between God and man
redeemed the world to God
died for our sins
Marcus Aurelius
121 AD
Emperor of Roman Empire
Stoic philosopher
wrote "Meditations"
St. Augustine
354 AD
wrote "Confessions" & "The City of God"
God created the world from the void
ideas were in the Divine Mind
problem of evil; where did it come from?
there is a barrier between God and the physical world
Hildegard of Bingen
1098 AD
reintroduced the ancient Jewish/Christian belief that God has a female side
women are also created in God's likeness
St. Thomas Aquinas
1225 AD
Christianized Aristotelian ideas
natural theological truths (through innate reason)
moral life: Commandments from the Bible & God given conscience distinguishing right from wrong
adopted Aristotle's scale of life: plants-animals-man-angels-God
Erasmus
1466 AD
humanist
Catholic Church reformer
believed that man has free will and is not predestined
Luther
1483 AD
faith alone; no need for Church intercession to receive God's forgiveness
salvation is a free gift
Sola Scriptura
Nicholas Copernicus
1473 AD
wrote "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres"
established heliocentric planetary system
still had circular orbits
Galileo Galilei
1564 AD
used empirical method
Law of Inertia
Shakespeare
1564 AD
brevity of life
dramatist that bridged Renaissance and Baroque times
Francis Bacon
1561 AD
advocate of scientific method
"knowledge is power"
Johannes Kepler
1571 AD
planets move in elliptical orbits
physical laws apply throughout the universe
lunar forces influence earth's tides
Thomas Hobbes
1588 AD
materialist
political philosopher
consciousness or the soul is the movement of tiny particles in the brain
Rene Descartes
1596 AD
Father of Modern Philosophy
assembled Renaissance ideas into a coherent system
what can we know?
what is the relationship between mind and body?
rationalist- "I think, therefore I am"
dualism-each is independent of the other
the idea of God is innate
substances- thought & extension
only man has a mind
Spinoza
1632 AD
rationalist
determinist
monist
pantheist
"God is all and all is in God"
began historical-critical interpretation of the Bible
Isaac Newton
1642 AD
Christian in philosophy
mechanistic view of nature
Law of Universal Gravitation
Locke
1632 AD
empiricist
where do ideas come from?
can we rely on our senses?
primary ideas can be objective
secondary qualities are subjective
Tabula rasa: the mind is an empty slate until it experiences things
perceptions brought about by reflection
Berkeley
1685 AD
empiricist
Christian
is the material world reality?
our ideas have a spiritual cause
God is the cause of everything and which all things consist in
we exist only in the mind of God
Hume
1711 AD
empiricist
agnostic: we can't prove whether God exists or not
project: eliminate false ideas that are not rooted in real sensory experience
perceptions: impressions and ideas
perceptions can be simple or complex
humans become habitual and make wrong conclusions
ethics is rooted in sentiments,
1098 AD
1483 AD
1685 AD
1711 AD
Cynics/Stoics/Epicureanism
Cynics: true happiness is not found in material things, power, or health. Suffering and death are of no consequence.

Stoics: freeing yourself from material luxury yet embracing political involvement.

Epicureanism: life is to enjoy pleasure, and not just sensory pleasure.


Medieval Ages
1000 years where Christian philosophy dominated the West and Christianity unified the culture. Plato's Academy closed, and monastic orders established.
Reformation
individual's personal relationship to God is more important than his relationship to the Church as an organization. Bible is written in local languages.
Baroque
ornateness & irregularity in art; carpe diem, vanity; memento mori, life is a theater
Idealism/Materialism/Empirical Method
Idealism: what exits is essentially spiritual in nature

Materialism: only the physical world exists

Empirical Method: natural phenomena must be investigated using observation, experience, and systematic experimentation
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