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The Cognitive Architecture
Transcript of The Cognitive Architecture
"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two" The human mind can only hold about 7 (5-9) pieces of information at one time.. sensory registry
long-term memory So??!!
Why is this important when it comes to teaching? working memory (STM) has a limited capacity Think of this when you create lessons....how does this effect your daily teaching? Pace & Structure...
What could this look like? Is it possible to over-ride STM with intense concentration? It is the warehouse of the mind... Is it possible to have information stored in LTM if you rarely think about it? So....
How do we get information through the stages of memory? (sensory-STM-LTM) Words can evoke images; images can evoke words Dual Coding Theory How else can teachers teach students to generate mental images to support learning? "Chunk" Information Reduce complexity.. Simplicity in small parts and clear connections between parts.. Phone Number Example.... How does George Miller's, "The Magic Seven, Plus or Minus Two" come into play? pattern of meaningful information Are there any other examples of this?? Language, gesture & speaking tones are also tools teachers can use.... So how do we accomplish this? Lets take a look at the cognitive system..... Perception Remembering Attention Sensory Registry Learning Sensation Gestalt Psychology The mind looks for meaningful patterns.. "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." Complex to Simpler Patterns Hold information in working memory prior knowledge & interest determine focus Record the information into LTM.. If there is no trace of new info in LTM, THEN no learning has occurred.. Moving info from LTM back to working memory (STM) Knowing Holding info in LTM Seek automaticity for some skills It takes time to practice skills.. It requires performance that is fluid, efficient, and almost effortless.. Are all skills in a class to be taught for automaticity? What are some examples?? Declarative vs. Procedural
Knowledge How is automaticity the "counterpart" to the process of chunking? Distributed Practice
Massed Practice What implications does this have for the teacher? What implications does this have for the class environment & teaching? Capitalize on Primacy & Recency Effects Learning is linear... Serial Position Curve The beginning & the end are most memorable.... Primacy Recency interference When information makes learning more difficult How is this relevant to teaching? Its directly correlated to the basic tenants of any effective lesson plan: Tell them what you will be learning, teach them, then review what you learned about that day.... General pattern of human learning Encode in Multiple Modes Different modes promote understanding..
Promotes LTM! Different retrieval pathways.. Link To Prior Knowledge New knowledge should connect meaningfully to prior knowledge, because if they are minimal, THEN we call this... Rote-Learning We need depth & interconnections Episodic Memory when this happens we get.... Understanding Rehearsal Moving learned information from the LTM back into the conscious awareness of STM (working memory) This is called REMEMBERING.. The ability to produce info from LTM without help VERSUS the ability to recognize information presented by someone else is VERY important...... Recall Recognition Recall is MUCH harder than recognition...Why? Our discussion today is going to focus on HOW this chapter provides us with necessary learning strategies for us as teachers, as well as for our students We will discuss via the following NINE Learning Strategies:
Focus on the Working Memory
Identifying Important Ideas
Primacy v. Recency Effects
Encoding in Multiple Modes Linking to Prior Knowledge Its all about the information flow... Always remember........
Students will see relevance and meaning in content. As the professional educator, it is YOUR job to use methods that foster relevance and meaning. The key is to turn short term memory (STM) into long term memory (LTM). Is there a limit on your current thoughts? "I went to the grocery store and bought some ____." Let's Play A Little Game... The Cognitive Architecture As you're reading this post the words you've read go into short-term memory for a very short period, you extract some meaning (hopefully) and then the meaning is either stored or discarded. You'll probably still have some faint memory of this tomorrow, but won't be able to remember most of the actual words. What about with math? HUH?? Working memory is where the mind operates on information, organizes it for storage or discarding, and connects it to other information. (pg.161) Let give your STM a short workout!
I need a volunteer! :)
http://www.freebrainagegames.com/games/memory_recall.php What year did Columbus discover America? For example, if you show a student an image of the state of Florida marked with the word "Florida" and the word "Florida" is spoken aloud at the same time, the person shown the image will better recognize and recall that image at a future point in time. FLORIDA How do "study skills" come into play when discussing memory? How do learners read their content? Highlighting, Notes, or Summarizing? Is there one specific methodology? Several Strategies: * Note Taking
* Writing To Learn
* Outlining & Mapping
* PQ4R (preview, question, read, reflect, recite & review) Let's Look! http://www.excelsior.edu/media/oels/10k/exam/pqr4/engage.html Levels-Of-Processing Theory (pg.167) "People subject stimuli to different levels of mental processing & retain only the information that has been subjected to he most thorough processing." Bower & Karlin (1974) "Stanford Yearbook" Connectionist Models (pg.169) "Knowledge is stored in the brain in a network of connections. Experience leads to learning by strengthening certain connections." What is.... Memory of personal experiences.... (last nights dinner....Senior Prom) How about "flash bulb" memory? OK......LET'S REVIEW! Everyone needs to brainstorm and come up with ONE THING you learned today....
AND...You can NOT repeat someone else! aka...Informational Processing What were you doing when the Twin Towers fell?