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Ottoman World

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Elizabeth Stockdale

on 6 September 2012

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Transcript of Ottoman World

Ghazis - Islamic Turkish leaders
Byzantium expands and unites to Ottoman territory under Osman Anatolia Osman I - rapid expansion and use of gun powder and cannons
Rallied Ghazi warriors in expansion efforts Osman's son Orkhan I declared himself 'Sultan'
- organized empire by having local officials govern and improved status of peasants
-Muslims required to serve in Turkish armies - non-Muslims had to pay a small exemption tax Mehmed II - Mehmed the Conqueror
Wanted to take over Constantinople to control the Bosporous Strair After seven weeks of fighting Mehmed and his Turkish military approached from the two sides by water Mehmed opened up the port to all people and religions - Jews, Christians, Muslims, Turks, and non-Turks rebuilt the city and renamed it Istanbul Muslims were required to participate in the military because of religious obligation
non Muslims could pay an exemption tax Mehmed's grandson, Selim the Grim took over Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and expanded into modern day Saudi Arabia
What does this mean religiously? Suleyman the Lawgiver (or the Magnificent)
judicial process and cultural achievements
expanded into Greece and Belgrade
expanding into central Europe (Austro-Hungarian territories) Social Organization
code of laws - social structure
simplified and limited taxes
reduced government involvement
trained prisoners of war (primarily Christians) to be Islamic soldiers
30,000 janissaries (soldiers) were loyal to the sultan Millets - communities within the empire made of Jews or Christians
could follow own law and religion
head of millet answered to sultan Ottoman Decline
tradition of Sultans killing or isolating their sons and brothers
How will this effect growth and prosperity? How did this create a stable empire? Safavid Empire Demonstrates Cultural Blending - mixing of different cultures under one authority Safavid Empire ruled Persia from 16th -18th century (Shi'ite Muslim dynasty) What are some benefits/results to cultural blending? New ideas, technology, trade routes, diverse marketplace
Challenges: religion and previous cultural practices Causes:
religious and cultural freedoms
trade opportunities
military conquest Looking at Cultural Blending with the Safavid Empire Overlapping similarities but how do these things develop differently in countries/empires?
Government styles
racial and ethnic blending
arts and architecture Safavid Empire
originally named for Islamic founder Safi al Din
Shia form of Islam
Shi'ite and Sunni forms relate to who takes over as religious leader of Islam when Muhammad died Image Bibliography:
http://trialx.com/i/2011/06/15/looking-for-pictures-of-esfahan-iran-islamic-republic-of/ Safi al-Din's grandson Isma'il built up and stabilized the Safavid military
by 14 he took the title Shah and expanded into modern day Iran Religious Tyrant
ordered the execution of any citizen that did not convert to Shi Islam
destroyed the Sunni population of Baghdad Ottoman leader - Selim the Grim executed all the Shia's in response in the Ottoman Empire
between the two leaders over 40,000 people were executed because of their religion Battle of Chaldiran - 1514
Ottomans were victorious by using artillery
set the border between the two empires and it is the modern day border between Iraq and Iran Isma'il's son Tahmasp used this defeat as motivation to strengthen Safavid military
expanded to Caucasus Mountains and brought Christians into the empire How will this expansion and acceptance change the economy of the Safavid Empire? Safavid Golden Age
Shah Abbas used what was best from Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds Reforms
created two armies - one of Persians and one made up the northern Christian groups
modernized military weaponry and strategy Government
punished corruption and rewarded government officials for good work and loyalty
How does this promotion system allow social mobility? Trade
he allowed religious tolerance of Christians and increased positive relationships with European powers
European and Safavid cultural blending
How will this effect the marketplace? New Capital
Esfahan covered four and half miles and considered one of the worlds most beautiful cities
used local and foreign architects, artists, and decorations Over three hundred Chinese artisans were brought to Esfahan to work with Safavid artists to create intricate ties, tiles, and decor Masjid-e Shah (Shah's Mosque) Decline of Safavid Dynasty
Shah Abbas made the same mistake as the Ottoman's
he killed or blinded his sons and his unprepared grandson quickly squandered money and resources
As the Safavid's declined a new Empire in India was beginning to flourish Mughal Empire in India Dehli - Sultanate
13th-16th centuries saw 33 different sultans ruling this territory and was destroyed
Was eventually rebuilt - however first saw stability in the 1500s 1494 - 14 year old Babur inherited territory north to modern day India
the elders in his community wanted to expand southward
Babur built up an army and moved south into India - creating Mughal Empire His son was ineffective and lost a great deal of his land
his grandson, Akbar, ushered in the Mughal's golden age Akbar 'Great' used military power, cultural blending, arts and architecture to heighten and demonstrate his strength Military:
used cannons and appointed people he conquered to positions in military - How does this strategy create unity? Cultural Blending:
religious freedom and married Hindu princesses and had Jesuit tutor his son
Religious Diversity: Jainism, Suffism, and Christianity
abolished tax on non-Muslims
created tax system based on income percentage and ensured consistency - more people paid it Land issues:
He gave land to upper classes but reclaimed it after they died
What are some positive and negative effects of this strategy: Compare with feudal system in Europe? Arts and Literature:
book illustrations that used great detail and color were disseminated throughout Mughal, Safavid, and Ottoman Empires
'Akbarnamah' or Book of Ahbar Successors
His son Jahangir left a majority of his affairs to his wife, Persian Princess Nur Jahan One of their sons, Khusrau rebelled against his father and Nur Jahan removed him from power
Khusrau sought the religious group, the Sikhs, to protect him Sikh leader, Guru Arjun, was tortured to death for sheltering him and the Sikhs became the target of Mughal violence and hatred Jahangir's other son - Shah Jahan, became his successor
Shah Jahan assassinated all possible rivals
Genuine passion for Persian wife Mumtz Mahal
Mumtaz Muhal died in childbirth and he instructed the building of the Taj Mahal as a memorial
How do large scale building projects both help and hurt a nation?
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