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Transcript of Gender Mainstreaming
Still a challenging work in progress after 2 decades
GM has a broader and holistic context
But accumulated experiences have been enriching and prolific, contributing to a robust literature on the concept, methodologies, practices, analyses and critiques of gender mainstreaming.
Applied in various development spheres including food and agriculture, forestry, NR management & conservation, health, education and population statistics.
June 3, 2014
Dr. Ma. Elena Chiong-Javier
Gender & Inclusion Specialist
It is a process and a strategy (UN, 1995).
What is Gender Mainstreaming?
Process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas at all levels.
Strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequity is not perpetuated.
Adopted by member organizations in the the UN system, major international donor agencies and national governments.
Implemented as a global strategy to attain the central goal of gender equality.
No common formula, blueprint or recommendations, resulting in varied interpretations and some confusion.
"Means to bring the gender perspective to the fore in policies and programmes based on lessons learned that failed to narrow the gender gaps by using only women-targeted initiatives, and achieving this by gender mainstreaming the implementing organization..."
Major Features of Gender Mainstreaming
compared to gender integration.
Gender equality is the ultimate and
central goal of gender mainstreaming.
Gender mainstreaming utilizes a top-
The impetus to make changes in the gender situation must come from highest or higher levels of leadership in the implementing development organization.
down, yet transformative approach.
Incorporates women in pre-existing programs and policies (Jahan, 1995).
Adopts women's issues and concerns to bring about a fundamental change in the mainstream (Jahan, 1995).
“just to ‘add in’ gender”
women were the sole focus of analysis but this erroneously suggested that women needed changing or integrating
adding in gender as well as challenging the status quo so that gender issues are not marginalized and/or ignored
women were part of a larger focus and analysis that accounted for the overall societal conditions and opportunities for both women and men
Solely concerned with getting women involved or integrated into existing development agendas formulated by others
Focused on quantitative aspects of women’s participation, but rarely questioned the conditions of that participation
Centered on specific interventions, programmes and projects
Brought both women’s and men’s perceptions to bear on the development process itself
Uncovered the inherent gender biases and high- lighted inequalities in dev’t interventions
Extended beyond interventions to include impacts from broader national and internal organizational contexts
GM is better complemented with
Projects that target or focus on the improvement of women’s lives should not be abandoned but should be an integral part of the gender mainstreaming strategy.
Why? Because women continue to be disadvantaged and marginalized owing to existing gender norms in most societies and enhancing their position remains a crucial though very challenging task.
June 3, 2014
Dr. Ma. Elena Chiong-Javier
Gender & Inclusion Specialist
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
That women and men have the same chances and opportunities in life to access, use and control socially valued goods, tools and resources such as water, housing, education, employment, health care or technology.
Other goals include gender equity and women empowerment.
Gender mainstreaming cannot succeed without the top management’s understanding of what the strategy entails, sustained commitment to its goal, and provision of an enabling environment for the advancement of gender equality.
In USAID, for example, accountability for advancing gender equality is shared Agency responsibility with particular emphasis on senior managers and Mission Directors.
Our Key Concepts
Woman of the World - What about Beijing?
Retrieved from https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/woman-world-what-about-beijing
Secretary General of the 4th World Conference on Women
Retrieved from http://live.china.org.cn/2013/03/16/coming-soon-premier-li-keqiang-meets-the-press/
Promote gender equality and empower women
Retrieved from http://www.zw.undp.org/content/zimbabwe/en/home/mdgoverview/overview/mdg3/
Not enough good
Retrieved from http://notenoughgood.com/2011/03/unwomen/michelle-bachelet/
#WHIPIT: Can women have it all?
Retrieved from http://www.rappler.com/brandrap/44663-whip-it-ncr-survey-women-issues
International Environment and Sustainable Development
Retrieved from http://www.iisd.ca/cms/sharks3/
You have mainstreamed gender if...
- socially constructed roles of women and men.
- Equal no. of women and men who participate or benefit from an intervention.
- Absence of discrimination on the grounds of a person’s sex/gender in the allocation of resources, opportunities or benefits, and guarantees equal rights and access to resources.
- Fairness of treatment for women and men in accordance with their respective needs; also called ‘substantive equality’ as it targets transformation.
- A measure of gender inequality in any socioeconomic indicator, e.g., employment, education, health, land ownership, income; results from inequality of decision making and differential (cultural) treatment given to women and girls as compared to that given to men and boys.
- When women and men take control over their lives: setting their own agendas, gaining skills (or having such skills and knowledge recognized), increasing self-confidence, solving problems and developing self-reliance. Both a process and an outcome.
- Process by which women mobilize to understand, identify and overcome gender discrimination, so as to achieve equality of welfare and equal access to resources.
- Being aware of or responsive to issues of social relation between women and men within a specific community, institution, society or culture. Focused on power relations between women and men, division of labor, needs and wants, constraints and opportunities.
- Problems that result from society’s definitions and expectations about women’s and men’s roles, rights and capacities.
- Statistics that adequately reflect differences & inequalities in the situation of women & men in all areas of life. They reflect: gender disaggregation, gender issues; and, data based on concepts & definitions reflecting diversity of women & men & capture all aspects of their life. Data collection methods take into account stereotypes, socio-cultural factors that may induce gender biases in data.
It is articulated in goals, objectives, policies and projects
Your organization has gender specialists and gender-sensitized policy makers and project implementers
It is embedded in data collection and analysis
Gender data is utilized for project planning to transform women's lives
Gender tools are used to monitor and evaluate projects