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Transcript of RECONSTRUCTION
1865-1877 PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION SOUTHERN STATS
2/3 of shipping destroyed
9000 miles of railroad destroyed
1/3 livestock killed
Property values decreased by 70%
260,000 Killed - That's 1/5 White Male population
4 Million Newly Freed Slaves who are Homeless, Jobless, + Hungry
Plantation Owners Lost Land and $3 Billion in Slaves
Poor Whites faced competition for jobs from Freedmen Freedom to Move
Freedom to Own Land
Freedom to Worship
Freedom to Learn Question of the Day - 2.29.12 Q:What is the artist's message? RECONSTRUCTION DEFINED:
Program by the federal government to repair the damage to the South and restore the Southern States to the Union from 1865 to 1877. BOTH:
-Showed Leniency toward the South
- Granted Pardons for some (Johnson many more than Lincoln would have - 13,000 in 1865 alone!) LINCOLN:
- Pardons for Confederatess who took an oath of allegiance
- No pardons for Confederate military and government officials and to those who had killed Black POWS.
- Each state could hold a convention after 10% of voters had sworn allegiance to the Union
- States could hold elections and resume full participation in the Union. JOHNSON:
- Pardoned Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union and Confederate Officials and Officers if they "Asked".
- Permitted each state to hold a convention without the 10% oath
- States were required to void secession, abolish slavery, repudiate (cancel) Confederate debt. CONGRESSIONAL
RECONSTRUCTION Freedmen's Bureau First Federal Relief Agency (1865) designed to provide education, healthcare, and employment to newly freed slaves. Radical Republicans Group that believed that the war had been fought over the moral issue of slavery and the postwar goal should be to promote equality for freedmen and punish the South. A SOCIAL REVOLUTION? A SECOND CIVIL WAR? A SUCCESS? A FAILURE? RECONSTRUCTION THE END + LEGACY A: Life for African-Americans in the South after the Civil War was WORSE THAN SLAVERY. Sherman's Field Order 15 "40 Acres and a Mule" BLACK CODES Laws that restricted freedmen's rights. Curfews
Land Restrictions 14th Amendment Civil Rights Civil Rights Act of 1866 Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Goal: Grant Birth-rite Citizenship to freedmen and build equal rights protection into the Constitution IMPACT:
- Overturned the Dred Scott decision
- Will become the basis for equality and challenges to segregation, discrimination etc.
- NOW: Immigration controversy Reconstruction Act of 1867 1. Put the South under military rule, dividing it into 5 military districts.
2. Ordered states to hold elections for new deleagtes to write new State Constitutions.
3. Required states to allow all qulaified voters including African Americans to vote in the elections.
4. Barred those who supported the Confederacy from voting.
5. Required states to gurantee equal rights to all citizens.
6. Required states to ratify the 14th amendment. Tenure of Office Act 1867 Required Senate approval for removing governemnt officials. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton WHY?
1. He would be in charge of Reconstruction due to Recon. Act of 1867.
2. Johnson felt that law was unconstitutional and wanted to test it. Personal freedoms guranteed by law. (voting, equal protection etc.) JOHNSON VETOED IT! Rep. Thaddeus Stevens R-PA
RADICAL REPUBLICAN CATCH PHRASE: "EQUAL PROTECTION AMENDMENT" 1 of 29 vetoes! Congress overode his veto. RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION 15th Amendment After 1866 the Republicans had a "veto proof majority" in Congress. Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. IMPEACHMENT - 1868 Johnson Fires- Congress drew up articles of impeachment
[charging an elected official with wrongdoing]
WHY? - For violating the Tenure of Office Act + for blocking them. - The 2/3 margin for conviction was missed by 1 vote. 1866 Key: All men can vote. Question of the Day - 3.1.12 Q: What is the difference between a "moderate" and a "radical"? Sec. of War Edwin Stanton POLITICS POLITICS
RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION LED TO:
1. Over 600 African-Americans elected as state representatives.
2. Hiram Revels elected as a senator from Miss. and P.B.S. Pinchback as Governor of LA
3. The “Solid South”:
Democrats in the south working to block Republican Reconstruction WHITE BACKLASH
Negative nickname for a Northern Republican
who moved South after the Civil War to capitalize on the Reconstruction efforts.
Negative nickname for a white Southerner who cooperated with Republican efforts.
3. Ku Klux Klan
Terrorist organization formed to intimidate blacks from voting and participating in the Governments of the South. The Compromise of 1877 (The End)
1. The results of the Presidential election of 1876 were disputed.
2. Democrats agreed to give Rutherford B. Hayes the votes and the victory.
3. Hayes, in return, agreed to remove the remaining federal troops from southern states.
4. This ended Reconstruction. LEGACY
1. Jim Crow Laws that segregated the South until the 1960s.
2. Plessy V. Ferguson (1896) upheld "Seperate but Equal" and segregation.
3. Tension + Violence continued for decades ECONOMICS Question of the Day 3.2.12 Q: What do we have in common? A: We are the only 2 presidents to be impeached. Question of the Day 3.5.12 Q: Why was Andrew Johnson impeached? A: For violating the Tenure of Office Act and blocking Congress's Reconstruction efforts.