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Transcript of Social Development
The brain is wired to develop in a social context.
Social development is how you see yourself and others.
The three main influences on social development are families, peers and schools.
Socialization is a process influenced by parents and others to ensure children learn the standards of behaviour, attitudes and skills required. Social
Development Infant = Trust vs Mistrust
Toddler = Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt
Preschool = Initiative vs Guilt
Student = Industry vs Inferiority
Teen = Identity vs role confusion
Young adulthood = Intimacy vs Isolation
Mid adulthood = Generativity vs Stagnation
Old age = Integrity vs Despair The stages Erick Erikson
Theorist How and Why? As humans we are social creatures
with an intrinsic desire to experience
'RELATEDNESS' Brain Development valued respected appreciated connected secure with others loved 'Relatedness' connected to the notion of 'Attachment'.... Oxytocin and Attachment Oxytocin:
hormone released in the brain
strong during birth & lactation
linked to bonding, attachment, social recognition & trust
contact (skin-2-skin) can increase oxytocin levels, making attachment essential for emotional and social development Attachment & Social Engagement Emotional Regulation! Egocentric vs Empathy! Indicators and Strategies Empathy Attachment Regulation Developmental Overview Power of play & interaction Types of play Let's play References From a young age attachment signs are present. Cues to look for are
Signals to the mother
Attachment to a particular caregiver
Distress when a parent leaves the room
Anxiety around strangers Does the infant use soothing mechanisms?
Does the infant rely on soothing objects?
Does the toddler show affection?
Does the preschooler verbalize & express feelings?
Does the child show empathy?
Does the child understand emotions? Does the child show a positive mood?
Does the child have positive relationships with other children?
Does the child display a capacity for humor?
Does the child express and assert themself appropriately?
Does the child take turns easily?
Does the child use non-verbal skills to engage other children? Developmental psychology attempts to understand the nature of growth in childrens cognitive, language and social skills.
The four cental themes are
Nature vs nurture
Stages or continuation
Critical and sensitive periods in human development
Early experience shapes later growth Erikson's theory is inspired by Freud's Psychoanalytic theory.
Erikson based his theory on the entire lifespan from birth to death.
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development has eight stages.
Erikson (like Piaget) saw developmental stages each with its own goals and concerns.
This theory has helped us to understand the role of others and our experiences can shape and influence our personality.
-Limitations and Critics -
Some critics believe Erikson's theory relates more to males than females.
The theory has also been labeled by some critics as only applying to early life and not applicable in adulthood.
Questions have been raised that each stage is confronted with one central conflict. When in reality many conflicts exist. engaging in 'play' facilitates learning at a synaptic level
assists in the development of the frontal lobes regulatory functions
learning occurs through real-world experiences and powerful interactions
socialization and social competencies developed
sharing, turn taking, negotiating, cooperating parallel play
parallel aware play
simple social play
complementary and reciprocal social play
cooperative social pretend play
complex social pretend play 'Walking in someone's shoes'
an ability to sense what others feel
Develops in the 1st years of life
Children need practice and encouragement
Demonstrates 'Theory of Mind'
Preschool - important motivator of pro-social behaviour (action without reward) Attachment:
a strong, affectionate bond/tie
pleasure is experienced when interaction takes place, comforted by nearness at times of stress
primary source of security, self-esteem, self-regulation and social competencies
begins in early days of life and linked to oxytocin (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007 p.149) (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007 p.154) (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007 p.159) (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007 p.149) (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007 p.145) (Krause, 2006 pp.94-95) critical features of the brains structure are shaped by experiences before and early after birth - well established before starting school
brain development is influenced by experiences with others from birth
experiences act as 'catalysts' for strengthening connections between neurons
human brain is 'hardwired' to develop within the social contexts that they experience (Krause, 2006 p.94) (Woodfolk & Margetts, 2010 p.74) Neurons Synapses Myelination
Pruning (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007, p.28; Woolfolk & Margetts, 2010, p.145) what do you think of this clip? (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007, pp. 147-148; Nagel, 2012, pp. 145-146) babies are born ready to form social ties.
birth-18mths: mother/primary caregiver and significant family members -
(1st few months may demonstrate 'indiscriminate attachment')
6mths: may display separation anxiety/stranger fears
peaks 10-18mths, fades towards 2yrs
2-3yrs: still demonstrates fears through visual and audible means -
linked to immature frontal lobes and lack of 'object permanence'
5yr +: 'abstract' attachment emotional regulation will depend on individual neurological characteristics and temperament
will depend on social interactions and relationships
linked to cognitive abilities - eg language and important social skill
ER involves the cerebrum and limbic system of the brain which develops over time
Explains the tantrums Ahola, D, & Kovacik, A. (2007). Observing and Understanding Child Development A Child Study Manual. Belmont, USA: Delmar, Cengage Learning
Berk, L. (2009). Child Development, (8th ed.). USA: Pearson Education
Herschkowitz, N, & Herschkowitz, E. (2004). A Good Start in Life Understanding Your Child's Brain and Behavior from Birth to Age 6, (2nd ed.). Washington: Dana Press
Krause, K, Bochner, S, Duchesne, S, & McMaugh, A. (2010). Educational Psychology for learning and teaching, (3rd ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning
McDevitt, T, & Ormrod, J. (2004). Child Development Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents, (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education
Nagel, M. (2012). In the Beginning The brain, early development and learning, Victoria, Australia: Acer Press
Woolfolk, A, & Margetts, K. (2010). Educational Psychology, (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia Developmental periods (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, pp.102-103) Prenatal childhood Infancy (cc) image by jantik on Flickr The brains most basic parts are constructed: Primary structures emerge within first few months
Neurons, building blocks of the brain are formed and migrate to places where they will do their work
Maturation of the cortex, where the brain readies itself to learn in the outside world
IMPLICATIONS>>> The developing brain ensures infants survival, making it possible for them to absorb and respond to a world of people, things, languages, sensations, feelings and experiences: with a full array of neurons, the brain concentrates on making connections.
1st yr- dendrites expand their reach and complexity. Fuller density of the inner areas before extending to outer layer of skull. Synapses grow in density, especially in areas devoted to vision and hearing.
In certain areas, synaptic pruning begins
Infant searches for certain kinds of stimuli ie human faces.
Myelination occurs during infancy, and continues throughout childhood, adolescence and adulthood.
IMPLICATIONS>>>> The brain strengthens neurological bundles that are used regularly, and allows under-utilised ones to shrivel: Synaptic pruning occurs at different rates in different areas. It is a very active process during childhood.
Front part of cortex (used for learning new information, behaviour control, planning) shows synaptic pruning throughout this stage and into adulthood.
Myelination continues to protect axons and speed transmission of signals
The brain continues to specialise in its 2 hemispheres. Corpus callosum
New synapses is possible throughout the stages of development, reflective of new learning experiences.
IMPLICATIONS>>>> The Social Brain (Nagel, 2012, p.144) (Berk, 2009, p. 425; Nagel, 2012, pp. 145-148 (Nagel, 2012, pp. 147-148) (Nagel, 2012, p.154) (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007, p.154; Berk, 2009, p.414) (Nagel, 2012, pp. 180-189) (Ahola & Kovacik, 2007, pp. 160-161) What we can do as a teacher to enhance students... Role plays
Family & community