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Transcript of Mongols
Conquest of China
Under Kubilai Khan the Mongols fought battle after battle in well-fortified cities.
The toughest area to defeat was southern china, but it eventually was.
After, Kubilai changed the Mongol name to a Chinese-language dynastic name, the Yuan.
Chinggis Khan's Successes
Chiggis khan’s successes included having alliances with powerful groups, giving him strength and enabling him to become the elected supreme ruler.
He defeated and conquered many lands eventually moving westward and ultimately ruled from Persia to the North China Sea.
Khan’s conquests were successful at bringing peace and commerce.
Chiggis khan’s greatest success was conquering the most territory than any other leader in history.
Another accomplishment that followed the conquered territories was the establishment of an administrative structure for the empire based on knowledge from Chinese bureaucrats. This helped unify the empire and weaken the threat of an internal mix-up.
Impact of Leaders:
Chinggis Khan's Political impacts on society
Under his rule, Mongols spread technology such as gunpowder, paper money, the compass.
Ruled Eurasia from China to the Middle East and Russia, resulting in the largest empire in history.
Because of this Chinggis was referred to as a brutal and fierce conqueror.
Fall and Rise
Conquest and Fall
Annexed the Kara Khitai Empire by 1219
Demanded the submission of the Khwarazm Empire, whose ruler refued; Mongol forces took empire within two years
Chinggis Khan took interest in conquered lands and used people from these territories to improve Mongol forces.
Died during the conquest of Xi Xia, he fell ill due to a previous injury
Died in 1227, after warning his sons not to fight over the empire
Change to Mongols
Chinggis Khan and his commanders created organization, discipline, and unity to the Mongols.
Focused Mongols on conquest and the collection of tribute
Divided Mongol forces into smaller armies, which were divided into smaller units
Created a messenger force to carry messages between commanders
Created unit to supply armies with maps using a network of spies to collect information
Born Temujin in the 1170s
Father was poisoned during Temujin's teenage years, leaving him as leader of his nomadic group
Most chiefs who were aligned to the group refused to follow the young Temmujin
He was deemed to have a very little chance of surviving.
Within months, Temujin's clan had been heavily reduced.
Encampment was attacked and Temujin was taken prisoner
Was put into a wooden collar and humiliated in an enemy camp
Escaped and rejoined family and a band of followers, joining a more powerful chieftain's clan
With help, avenged his clan and later renamed himself Chinggis Khan
In 1206, was named khagan, or supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes
Chinggis Khan's Failures
Chiggis Khans failures are few due to his successful life.
One failure would be the fact that he didn’t leave or set up an ordered system for how his children would inherit the Mongolian lands.
When he died the land was divided but there was no single ruler to emerge to continue the unification of the large empire.
Other than that another failure would be how he died.
Kubilai Khan's Successes
Kubilai khan’s successes include leading the Mongols against the Song and eventually establishing the Yuan dynasty.
He was successful at unifying china which was under the rule of a foreign power, and helped improve agriculture by stressing its importance.
His economic success was attributable to his introduction of paper money; and he also established a new alphabet which helped unify the empire.
Kubilai Khan's Failures
Some failures were caused due to the expeditions against japan, which resulted badly and expensively.
He failed to take japan and at a high cost which included many lives.
In order to pay for this Kubilai overtaxed his subjects.
Another failure would be his discriminatory policies towards his people.
Kubilai Khan Impacts on Society and Empire
Grandson of Chinggis Khan
In c. 1264 relocated capital from Mongolia to Beijing
Became an absolute ruler and made empire aristocratic.
Kublai founded the Yuan Dynasty of China in order to reduce the power of regional lords
Chinggis Khan's Economic impacts on Society
Under Chinggis Khan rule, the Silk road flourished
The silk road introduced great economic growth for the society.
Chinggis Khan also created a mail delivery service which allowed travelers and news to travel through the extensive empire with ease.
Cultural Blending and Social Polices
Mongol women did not adopt Chinese women's practices
Chabi, wife of Kubilai , played a critical role in policies aimed at reconciling the majority of Chinese population to Chinese rule
Kubilai and Chabi both very curious of the culture and had cosmopolitan tastes.
Muslims, Persians, and Turks were admitted into inner circle of Kubilai's administrators and advisers
Travelers, like Marco Polo, were also welcome
Favoritism towards Mongols and foreign officials lead to unrest with Confucian scholars
Kubilai attempted to raise position of merchants and scholars
Fall of Yuan
The power of the Mongols contradicted Kubilia's short rule in China.
Near the end of his reign, his dynasty showed signs of weakness.
Failures against Japan, Vietnam and Java led to Mongol's illusion of invincibility fade
Death of Chabi and his favorite son led to Kubilai to living an empty life, and later death
Successors lack his capability for leadership, and did not care for administrative tasks, leading to a softening of Mongol rule
The Mongols were able to keep their own identity separate from Chinese; however Kubilai incorporated Chinese classical songs and rituals into his court.
There was an established ethnic hierarchy, the Mongols at the top followed by the Mongols at the top followed by the central Asian nomadic and Muslim allies.
Then came the north, ethnic Chinese, and finally the minority peoples of the south.