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Direct/Expository Approach

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mark baludio

on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of Direct/Expository Approach

Direct / Expository Approach
Direct Instuction / Lecture Method
Direct Instruction / Lecture Method
- Direct instruction is aimed at helping students acquire procedural knowledge which is knowledge exercised in the performance of some task.
Steps of the Direct Method or Lecture Metho
To employ this methodology in teaching skills
,
follow these step
:

A)
Provide the rationale
B)
Demonstrate the skill
C)
Provide guided practice until mastery
D)
Check understanding and provide feedback
E)
Provide extended practice and transfer
F)
Asses learning at the end
(
this is what we call summative assesment
).
FACTS
A)
Give a short introduction by providing a Rationale
B)
Present your lesson
C)
Developed the lesson by explaining , illustrating it with diagrams if appropriate and/or by giving concrete examples
D)
Give application of the lesson

E)
Check understanding and provide feedback
.
Mark Baludio
Instructional Characteristics
The strategy is teacher-directed
The emphasis is on the teaching of skill. Each step must be mastered, hence the student gain "
HOW
" rather than "
WHAT
". It is termed procedural knowledge.
Taught in a step by step fashion, it ensures the learning of the entire procedure with no step missed.
Lesson objectives include easily observed behavioras that can be measured accurately. If the lesson is to developed skill in performing five steps of a particular experiment, such skill can be observed and measured. The level of the performance can be assessed from the number of steps performed correctly.
This is a form o learning through imitation, sometimes termed ''behavioral modeling''.
This can also be used to teach facts, principles and laws.
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
The student must be given ample time for practice.
They must be included in the planning stage since this technique is highly task-oriented and aimed at mastery of every step. The lesson objectives are student based.
Discribe the testing situation and specify the level of performance expected.
divide complex skills and understanding into subskills or into its comonent step so they can be taught easily and with precision.
Design own Strategy in teaching each skills which will eventually contribute to the learning of the entire skill.
Before the demonstration, Carefully rehears all steps. The steps should be observe and followed.
Assign practice for short periods of times, then continue learning by imitating others.
Provide feedback and encouragement through praises. Positively motivated, the student will never get tired practicing
Be able to construct good performance-based test.
Demonstration Method
As the name implies, in the demonstration method the teacher or an assigned student or group shows how a process is done wile the students become observers.
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
BEFORE



1.The demonstrator/s mus be well-selected. He/she/they must be skilled in operating modern equipment and proficient in undertaking scientific investigation.
2.When planning the activities make sure that the materials are easily available. Likewise get prepared with possible substitutes.
3.Get ready eith the equipment and tools to be used. Demonstrator should be scheduled as to day and class period.
4. The demostrator must try the activity several times before the real demonstration for a smooth sequencin of the step as well as accuracy of the result.
5.The observer must be prepared and motivated to ensure concentration throughout the activity.
6. The demonstrator must be ready with on-the-spot revision/s such as alternative steps or substitute materials when needed.
7.Arrange the observers around the demonstration area or at a distance where they will be able to observe dully what is going on.
8.Depending on the kind of demonstration to be undertaken, pointers or questions may be given to focus students attention and avoid irrelevant observation.
During
1.
Place must be quiet in order to sustain the observers attention and interest during the activity.

2.
Extreme care must pe taken in performing some delicate steps. Precision, timing for every step, and measuring accurately using the standard instruments must be observed.

3.
The activity must not be interrupted by unnecessary announcements or noise in the surroundings.

4.
They are allowed to take down short notes or record some data which may be analyzed after.
AFTER
1. Allow some question which bothered them during the demonstratin. The post-demo discussion may necessitate clarifiying a step that was not performed well or a set of data missed.

2. An examination of the obsered data and all information recorded follows.

3. Have an analysis of trend, patterns or uniform occurences that can help in arriving at a conclusion.

4. The conclusion or summary must be cooperatively undertaken by the whole class.

5. Asses learning by way of a short test, an oral evaluation or a performance test.
Advantages
1.
The demostration method follows a systematic procedure, hence student will be able to learn from a well-tried procedure since the demonstrators are selected and adjudged to be skilled.

2.
the use of expensive equipement and machines will be maximized.

3.
possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided since the demonstration is supposed to be well-planned in advance.

4.
It will not result to trial-and-erroe learning as what happens with unplanned learning activities.

5.
The finding are reliable and accurate since the procedure has been tried before.

6.
The value of confidence is developed among the demonstrators for such hands-on demonstratio.

7
. Curiosity and keen observing ability are instilled among the observers.
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