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Period 1 8000 B.C.E.-600 B.C.E.

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Megan Hurley

on 17 September 2015

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Transcript of Period 1 8000 B.C.E.-600 B.C.E.

AP World History Review

1. Interactions between humans and their environment
2. Development and interaction of culture
3. State building, expansion, and conflict
4. Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems
5. Development and transformation of social structures
Period 1 8000 B.C.E.-600 B.C.E.
1. Interactions between humans and their environment
2. Development and interaction of culture
3. State building, expansion, and conflict
4. Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems
5. Development and transformation of social structures
Period 3 600 C.E. - 1450 C.E.
1. Interactions between humans and their environment
2. Development and interaction of culture
3. State building, expansion, and conflict
4. Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems
5. Development and transformation of social structures
Period 2 600 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.
1. Interactions between humans and their environment
2. Development and interaction of culture
3. State building, expansion, and conflict
4. Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems
5. Development and transformation of social structures
Period 4 1450 C.E. - 1750 C.E.

Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic revolution was a key factor contributing to the creation of civilizations. The Neolithic Revolution was when hunter-gatherers discovered that they could grow crops and therefore settle in one place. This led to settlements, job specialization, new technologies, and gender inequality. This entirely has to do with interactions between humans and their environment because humans finally discovered how to manipulate their environment to produce their own food instead of having to chase it down.
Greek City-states

The Greeks develop their society into separate city-states. Ancient Greeks spoke the same language and believed in the same religion, but that's about where the similarities ended. Greeks spent much of their time fighting other Greek city-states and only bonded together for just enough time to fight off external forces, such as Persia. The formation of Greek city states was a direct effect of the mountainous terrain that is Greece. This prohibited the Greek from forming one unified nation.
Oracle Bones

In Ancient China, during the Shang dynasty, diviners read oracle bones to determine the gods answers to the Shang Royal courts concerns. The oracle bones were first inscribed with a question, then they were placed in a fire or scorched with an extremely hot tool. After that, the diviner attempted to read the cracks and determine what the gods were telling them. They then wrote the message on the bone. This shows how the Shang tried to use their environment to understand the world around them as well as predict the future. The bones also revealed that the Shang were worried about having good harvest and many oracle bones had questions about rain inscribed on them.
Cast System

The Caste System refers to the strict social classes of India. The Varnas or classes are; the Brahmins, the priests; the Kshatrias, the warriors or aristocrats; the Vaishyas, the cultivators, artisans, and merchants; the Shudras, the landless peasants and serfs; and the Parahs or harijan; the Untouchables who were not included in the Caste System. They did the dirty unwanted tasks. You were born into your Varna and it was for bidden to marry outside of one's Varna. Social mobility was only achieved through reincarnation after leading a good life. The Indian cast system is part of India’s cultural identity because it was what held Indian society together in terms of political turmoil.

During the Han dynasty, Confucianism became the dominant school of thought amongst the Chinese. Confucianism is the code of ethics adopted by many rulers and scholars in Chinese society. It states that the Mandate of Heaven will decide who will be the next ruler. Confucian beliefs became so integrated into Chinese culture that is still around today.

Cuneiform was the Samarians system of writing. Cuneiform conveys sounds, syllables, ideas, and objects in the form of symbols. The Samarian's did this by using reeds to scratch symbols into clay tablets. Cuneiform evolved with the culture of Sumar because it changed from pictures and symbols. It changed because scribes wanted to record ideas, not only objects or records.
Shi Huangdi

Shi Huangdi was the emperor who brought an end to the Warring States Period in China. He used harsh legalist tactics to unite the Chinese. He also standardizes weights, measurements, and money. Shi Huangdi also simplify the Chinese language to try to unite his people even more. Shi Huangdi was a strong harsh ruler who unified China and made it one strong unit.
Hammurabi’s code

Hammurabi's code was a written and posted around the Babylonian empire, It was based on equal punishment and it is where the saying “an eye for an eye” comes from. Though the harshness of the punishment is determined by social class, no matter the class someone still has to pay for their wrong doings. Hammurabi's code was an important part of the Babylonian empire as well of stopping internal conflict in Babylon.

Towards the beginning of his rule, Ashoka conquered most of the subcontinent, India. After that, he ruled through a bureaucracy and he came up with a law code that was to be followed throughout the empire. To remind people of these rules, he posted them on pillars, called stupas, which were 40 to 50 feet tall. Ashoka brought the Mauryan empire to its height in terms of expansion and economy.
The Silk Routes

The silk routes were trade routes that stretched across Europe and Asia both on land and overseas. They are called silk roads because coveted Chinese silk could be found all along the trails. Other things that could be found on these trade routes are spices, horses, jade, perfumes, jewelry, glass, art, poetry, olive oil, wine, as well as ideas. Trade along the silk routes was a major source of income for many empires.
Job Specialization

Job specialization was a direct effect of having surplus food. Before societies had surplus food all everyone did all day was work for food. After there was a surplus of food not everyone had to work for it, some people could become artisans and priests, and eventually scribes and merchants. Job specialization is one of the first steps mankind took regarding economics.
Roman Roads

The Roman roads were massive, expertly built roads meant for trade and travel throughout the Roman Empire. They were anywhere from 20 to 26 feet wide and through out the empire there were over 50,000 miles of roads. Both Romans and their conquered people were allowed to use these roads for trade and commerce. Ideas were also spread throughout the Roman Empire on these roads. The Roman roads were vital to trade throughout the Roman Empire.
Gender Equality

The only time that there was possible gender equality on earth was in the time of hunter gatherers. There were still gender roles, the women gathered, the men hunted, however, both genders roles were seen as equally important to keep the family alive. The Paleolithic age was the only time where there was possible social equality between genders.
Job Specialization

Job specialization began in the Neolithic age because of the Neolithic revolution. There was a surplus of food which meant some people did not have to work to get their food. Some people became priests and artisans and wealth started to be determined by the amount of belongings one had. This lead to social classes which are still around today.
The Caste System

The Caste system was the name of India social hierarchy. It has separate Varnas, or classes which are as follows; Brahmins or priests; Kshatriyas, warriors or lords; Vaishyas, the middle-class; and finally Shudras, the farmers, peasants and conquered people. There is also a class which is not included in the cast system called the Pariahs or the Harijan who are known as the untouchables. They did the unwanted dirty jobs.

Islam is a popular religion in the Middle East. It began with Muhammed who was a trader who Allah spoke to and he was told to express Muslim beliefs. He went on a pilgrimage to express his beliefs. Muslims believe in one God and their holy book is the Koran. Islam is important to the development of Middle Eastern culture.

Neo-Confucianism follows the same basic ideals as Confucianism but it combines them with Buddhist ideals of morality as well as Buddhist thought. This belief system came around during the Song Dynasty. This is because Song Emperors tried to promote native Chinese culture. Confucian thinkers admired the thought process of Buddhist and many ideas of theirs meshed well together.
The Crusades

Although the Crusades are holy wars, religion wasn't the only motive to attack. The Pope had political motives as well. The more land the Pope had the richer he, and the Church, would become. Also, the Church, and therefore the Pope, would have more power when they conquered more land. Although the Catholics did not succeed in taking over Palestine and Jerusalem they still made and impact and discovered new technologies while fighting.
Justinian’s Code

Justinian and his wife, Theodora, ruled over the Byzantine Empire for 38 years. In that time, Justinian wrote a code of Roman law called The Body of Civil Law. His systematic review of Roman law included laws dating back to the time of Roman kings. This law code was so respected that its influence can still be seen today and most of Europe, Japan and Louisiana.
Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar had liberal policies and wanted social reform. He spent large amounts of money on public spectacles to distract the public from their miserable lives. This helped him in an election; he then conquered Gaul and he named himself dictator for life, opposed to being dictator for six months while at war like the constitution allowed. He made public works projects to employ the poor. Caesar’s centralized imperial government was not popular with the elite classes who assassinated Cesar because of them.
Feudalism in Europe

Feudalism in Europe came after the fall of the Roman Empire. The Roman roads crumbled, stopping most trade. Towns and cities had no protection from Vikings and other external forces. To cope, manors were created. The king owned all of the land on the manor. He distributed the land to the lords in exchange for protection and loyalty. The Lords gave protection, food, and shelter to then knights in exchange for homage and military service. Finally, the knights offered food, protection, and shelter to the peasants or serfs in exchange for their labor and rent. Feudalism was largely dependent on being self-sufficient by farming their own land. Therefore, the amount of land one had was an indicator of how wealthy one was.
Commercial Revolution

The Commercial revolution began in large part because of the Crusades. The Crusades brought Europe back into contact with Asian goods such as silk and spices which were rare in Europe. This reintroduction of trade made Europeans want more spices for less money. Since European traders couldn’t get to Asia without paying heavy fines, they tried to find alternative routes to the Spice Islands. They ended up discovering the Americas which had a wealth of their own unexploited resources.
Trans-Atlantic Trade

Trans-Atlantic trade brought many slaves to the Americas from Africa. This is the first time in history where people were slaves purely because of the color of their skin. Slaves were traded for sugar in manufactured goods. The conditions they were put through on their voyage to America we're very poor in the mortality rate at one time was greater than 50%.

Daoism is an Asian religion believes in “the Dao” or “the Way.” They believe it to be useless to focus on questions that have no explanation. They instead focus on themselves and how they can live in harmony with the world. They advocate for extreme laisse-fair government.
Chinese Isolation
Time and time again, China has turned to extreme, but not absolute, isolationist policies. China is able to do this because of the physical barriers surrounding it. To the north, there is the Gobi desert, to the west there are the Himalayas, and to the east there's the Pacific Ocean. Where there wasn't natural boundaries, emperors built physical ones such as the Great Wall of China. All of these factors contributed to China's isolation tactics.

Monsoons are strong winds that occur in the Indian Ocean. Because it's in the middle, India receives most of the winds. Merchants learned how to use these winds to help them travel and trade their goods along the Indian Ocean. For example, Indian goods were brought up to China with the summer monsoon and Chinese goods were brought to India with the winter monsoon.

Aqueducts are an engineering feat which was created by Romans during this time. Aqueducts brought fresh water from the mountains down and into Rome for them to drink. This water was used to fill public baths, swimming pools, and for plumbing. The Romans also had a sewage system for the waste water.

The idea of a democracy originated in Greece. A democracy is when the citizens vote for political matters. Greece had a direct democracy where the public votes for every political decision. Now, we have representative democracies where citizens vote for officials to vote for them.

The Grand Canal
One of the greatest accomplishments of the Sui dynasty was the Grand Canal. Emperor Sui Yangdi built this canal to bring foods from the south to the east. A canal is necessary for this because most rivers flow east to west. This encourage trade throughout China.

One major crop of China's was rice. During this time, China discovered fast ripening rice which allowed farmers to have 2 crops of rice per year. Because of this, China had surplus crops which led to an increase in the population. Also, the surplus of food lead to growth of cities as well as China’s wealth and trade.

Constantinople was a major trade center in western Eurasia. Most of Byzantium's wealth came from moderating the trade. The citizens prospered even further by buying things, such as raw gemstones, and cutting them and fashioning them into jewelry and trading the jewelry.

Binding of the Feet
In China one fad was for women to bind their daughter’s feet. They would wrap their feet very tight to prevent them from growing. If woman's foot was small enough, she may be allowed to marry up a social class. This led to an even more patriarchal society in China because it crippled the woman and made them even more dependent on men.

The Veiling of Women
One is Islamic tradition is the veiling of the women. Upper-class women wore veils over their faces to discourage unwanted attention from men. They were also accompanied by a man, usually a husband or brother, when out in public. The veiling of woman gives even more power to men in and already patriarchal society.

Rome, as all societies, was patriarchal. The man is the head of the household and was the paterfamilias. He could sell his family, choose who his children would marry, and decide what work they could do. Although men held much power under the law, women helped them and were often well respected in the family.

Hagia Sophia
The Hagia Sophia was Justinian’s greatest agricultural feat. It's a domed, Christian building that is breathtaking. The ceiling looks as if the heavens are touching down on the earth and it has all sorts of costly metals and jewels lining the walls.

Horseback Warfare
The Mongols were skilled horseback riders. They combined that skill with archery which was a deadly duo. They now had a very mobile and deadly army. The Mongols hunted and played games on horseback to train for wars.

The Crusades
The Crusades were holy wars fought between the Roman Catholic Christians and Muslims to gain control of both Palestine and Jerusalem. Both were under Muslim control however Palestine is where Christianity originated and Jerusalem is a holy city according to Catholics. Some tactics were used by the Pope to gain soldiers were the remission of sins, riches, adventure, and an escape from life and troubles at home. Because of these wars, new ideas, technologies, and goods were exchanged between different peoples.

Vikings were skilled seamen who made a living by stealing rather than raising crops and trading. They secretly snuck through rivers into unsuspecting villages in Europe and they knew how to use the tides there advantage. Hundreds of these warriors bombarded settlements and vanished just as quickly as they appeared. The Vikings can be characterized by fierce dragon heads on their boats.
Roman Catholicism
Catholicism gained popularity in the Roman Empire when Constantine, the emperor, had a vision of the Christian god. This newfound faith supposedly helped him win wars. Artistic followers of Christ began to create him in their work. Christianity appeals to the masses because it offers salvation from their life they're living now.

Chinggis Khan
Chinggis Khan unified the Mongols and started the Mongolian empire. He was a believer in steppe diplomacy which is when someone will do anything, break alliances, show courage, be loyal to allies, all to improve their position. The Mongols had an extremely effective military because they utilized cavalry along with bows. This is how the Mongols conquered such a vast area of land.

Mansa Musa
Mansa Musa was the ruler of the Mali Empire. He was Islamic so while on his journey to Mecca, he decided to show the countries he went through the wealth his empire had. He gave out gold and brought thousands of soldiers, attendants, subjects, and slaves along with him. Because he gave out so much gold it's value began to decline.

Chinese Junks
Chinese junks were created to hold as much cargo as possible. This allowed for most prosperous trade possible. Some ships could carry up to 1 ton of cargo. Ships then traded on the Indian Ocean using the monsoons to help push them along.

Gunpowder was invented during the Tang Song dynasties. While trying to invent a mixture to prolong life, alchemists discovered an explosive mixture. Military officers wanted to figure out how to use this warfare right away. This lead to the production and refinement of guns and cannons.
Bubonic Plague
The bubonic plague to spread throughout Eurasia like wildfire. Every social status was struck by this epidemic, this left a lot of work for the survivors. Many workers searched for better conditions during this time.

In medieval Europe, feudalism made new social classes. Land determined your wealth and wealth determined your social class. The kings, who are the wealthiest, owned all of the land on the manor. They gave the land to lords who in turn gave the king their protection and loyalty. The lords split up the land they were allotted and give it to the knights in return for homage and military service. Then, the knights allowed peasants and serfs to live on the land if they worked land and paid rent. Feudalism made separate societies which were dependent on themselves to survive.

The Samurai
The samurai were warriors in feudal Japan. They follow closed similar to the code of chivalry followed by knights in in medieval Europe called bushido. If a samurai did something to bring dishonor to himself, he was expected to commit ritualistic suicide called seppuku.

Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange brought the world together in ways never before seen. There was global exchange of food, crops, animals, plants, disease, and ideas. Many different plants were traded that were never before seen in Europe.

Chinese Agriculture
The Chinese farmed rice mostly. They discovered a new type of fast ripening rice. This rice could be harvested twice per year.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta was a famous world traveler. He was well-versed in Islamic government because of his travels. He had strict policies and harsh punishments while he worked in the Maldive islands.

Protestant Reformation
Many things were corrupt in the Protestant church, people wanted to change that. Martin Luther tried to get rid of the selling of indulgences. John Calvin got the Institutes of the Catholic Religion published which explains what the church should teach.

422The Age of Exploration
The Age of Exploration was spurred by Europe's lust for Indian spices. It cost too much to go across Europe through the Ottoman Empire, so explorers tried going west. Many countries wanted to get colonies in the New World.

The Renaissance
The Renaissance was the rebirth of culture in Europe. After the medieval ages, Leonardo da Vinci started painting in three dimensions. Michael Angelo and Donatello sculpted actual biologically correct humans.

Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great was an absolute monarch. She worked to improve Russia's economic development and peasant’s lives. She was a strong ruler who sought to make Russia a great power.

Centralized Power
Centralized power is when most of, if not all, power is given to one individual. This began to get more popular in Europe after the medieval ages. This strong power led to absolute monarchs.

Louis the XIV
Louis the XIV or the Sun King was another absolute monarch. He built the Palace of Versailles purely to demonstrate how powerful he was. He had a large window in his room facing towards the sun so the sun would wake him up every morning. He also built the Hall of Mirrors to show his wealth.

Columbus was a Spanish explorer who wanted to find the Spice Islands. He traveled west, and instead of finding India he found the Americas. Although, he was convinced he had found the Spice Islands.
Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange was very profitable. This worldwide trade exchanged new goods and plants that were never before seen in that part of the world. However, the Columbian Exchange also spread disease.

Printing Press
The printing press allowed for mass copies of a book to be printed. This also increased the amount of literate people in Europe. The Bible was one of the first books printed and it was translated into multiple different languages.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta was a world traveler. He was Islamic and went on a pilgrimage. After he went to mecca, he continued to travel around the world. He traveled over 73,000 miles and visited 44 modern day countries.
Filial Piety
Filial piety is the duty of children towards their fathers and is considered the family’s values. Because China has a strongly patriarchal society, the eldest male is the head of the household. Children had the task of making sure their parents were happy even into their old age.
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