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Lecture 1 BIOS 443

introduction to immunology

Deborah Brown

on 18 August 2017

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Transcript of Lecture 1 BIOS 443

Complex interactions to rid the body of pathogens
Roadmap to Immunology
Innate Immunity
Innate vs Adaptive Immunity
Adaptive Immunity
barriers to infection
Division of labor between innate and adaptive immune response
Immune Response to Infection Consists of Two Components
Division of labor between humoral and cell mediated immune response
Adaptive Immune Response Consists of Two Components
sentinels, immediate
senses "danger"--
no memory
bridge to adaptive
later response 4-7d
develops in 1° and 2° lymphoid organs
cells bear receptors that are antigen specific
specialized cells and functions
forms the basis of memory to infection
Skin, 1° Lymphoid Organs, 2° Lymphoid Organs
Organs and Cells of the Immune System
Bone Marrow, Thymus
Lymph Node, Spleen
CD34 Cell Surface Marker Identifies Pluripotent Stem Cell
Cells of the Immune System Originate from a Single Pluripotent Stem Cell
T cell mediated immunity
Non specific cells ingest and respond to pathogens
How does the innate immune system detect invaders?
Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns are Recognized by Pattern Recognition Receptors
Distinct T cell and B cell areas
Adaptive Immune Responses are Generated in Secondary Lymphoid Organs
B cells originate in the BONE MARROW
Mature Lymphocytes are Generated from Precursors in the Primary Lymphoid Organs
T cells originate in the THYMUS
Cell Mediated Immunity Combats Pathogens
Immune System exists in the Steady State-Is mobilized upon infection/injury
Dendritic Cells bridge the innate and adaptive Immune systems
Lymphocytes develop in 1° organs, each with a DIFFERENT antigen receptor
Clonal Selection Theory-Basic Tenet of Adaptive Immunity
Diversity is generated by rearrangement of a few genes (100s) into a large # of combinations (1e11)
B cells Produce Antibodies after recognition of antigen
almost any chemical structure can be an antigen--must be recognized by B cell or T cell receptor
Antigens are molecules that induce an immune response
Different Constant Regions Determine the Functions of Antibodies
Antibodies have Antigen Binding and Constant Regions
Vaccines are Designed to Induce Immunological Memory
Basic tenet of Cell mediated Immunity and main difference between B cells and T cells
T cells Must Interact with Other Cell Types to Function--MHC Restriction
Class I molecules present endogenous antigens (peptides)
CD8 T cells recognize peptides presented by Class I MHC
Class II molecules present exogenous antigens (peptides)
CD4 Cells Recognize Peptides Presented in the Context of MHC Class II
Dendritic Cells are Specialized for ingesting antigen and interacting with naive T cells
Two Types of T cells involved in different functions in the immune response
How does the Immune System distinguish between self and foreign antigens?
Tolerance is "learned" during development
How does the Immune System turn itself off?
peripheral tolerance, cytokine pathways, cell death
Immunological Memory: Faster and more Robust Adaptive Responses upon Reinfection
Cytokines Regulate Cell Growth Differentiation and Function
Full transcript