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Lecture 1 BIOS 443

introduction to immunology

Deborah Brown

on 27 August 2013

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Transcript of Lecture 1 BIOS 443

Complex interactions to rid the body of pathogens Roadmap to Immunology Innate Immunity Innate vs Adaptive Immunity Adaptive Immunity barriers to infection Division of labor between innate and adaptive immune response Immune Response to Infection Consists of Two Components Division of labor between humoral and cell mediated immune response Adaptive Immune Response Consists of Two Components sentinels, immediate senses "danger"--PAMPs non-specific no memory bridge to adaptive later response 4-7d develops in 1° and 2° lymphoid organs cells bear receptors that are antigen specific specialized cells and functions forms the basis of memory to infection Skin, 1° Lymphoid Organs, 2° Lymphoid Organs Organs and Cells of the Immune System Bone Marrow, Thymus Lymph Node, Spleen CD34 Cell Surface Marker Identifies Pluripotent Stem Cell Cells of the Immune System Originate from a Single Pluripotent Stem Cell T cell mediated immunity Non specific cells ingest and respond to pathogens How does the innate immune system detect invaders? Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns are Recognized by Pattern Recognition Receptors Distinct T cell and B cell areas Adaptive Immune Responses are Generated in Secondary Lymphoid Organs B cells originate in the BONE MARROW Mature Lymphocytes are Generated from Precursors in the Primary Lymphoid Organs T cells originate in the THYMUS Cell Mediated Immunity Combats Pathogens Immune System exists in the Steady State-Is mobilized upon infection/injury Dendritic Cells bridge the innate and adaptive Immune systems Lymphocytes develop in 1° organs, each with a DIFFERENT antigen receptor Clonal Selection Theory-Basic Tenet of Adaptive Immunity Diversity is generated by rearrangement of a few genes (100s) into a large # of combinations (1e11) B cells Produce Antibodies after recognition of antigen almost any chemical structure can be an antigen--must be recognized by B cell or T cell receptor Antigens are molecules that induce an immune response Different Constant Regions Determine the Functions of Antibodies Antibodies have Antigen Binding and Constant Regions Vaccines are Designed to Induce Immunological Memory Basic tenet of Cell mediated Immunity and main difference between B cells and T cells T cells Must Interact with Other Cell Types to Function--MHC Restriction Class I molecules present endogenous antigens (peptides) CD8 T cells recognize peptides presented by Class I MHC Class II molecules present exogenous antigens (peptides) CD4 Cells Recognize Peptides Presented in the Context of MHC Class II Dendritic Cells are Specialized for ingesting antigen and interacting with naive T cells Two Types of T cells involved in different functions in the immune response How does the Immune System distinguish between self and foreign antigens? Tolerance is "learned" during development How does the Immune System turn itself off? How is memory to prior infections formed? Complement Proteins act in a cascade to lyse coated bacteria 1.Classical 2. Lectin 3. Alternative
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