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Vygotsky's Theory of Sociocultural Cognitive Development

Psychological Foundations Presentation

Rodolfo Reyes

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of Vygotsky's Theory of Sociocultural Cognitive Development

Vygotsky's Theory of Sociocultural Cognitive Development Detention:
Rodolfo Pop quiz today!!! Noam was here... Minds On! -- Pop Quiz!!! Minds On!!! Task:
You have 1 minute to complete the quiz in front of you.

Please do your quiz individually… no cheating! Minds On! -- Pop Quiz!!! Task (continued):
If you still have not finished the quiz, you can work with your group members to learn how to answer your quiz [5 min] Zone of Proximal Development Zone of Proximal Development ZPD: the area between the most difficult problem the student can solve independently and the most difficult problem the student can solve in collaboration with others ZPD in Your Classroom Get to know their learning habits by watching them problem solve

Meet periodically with students to discuss progress and goals

Do not oversimplify or generalize for the entire class and/or course How can you identify your students' ZPD? Help your students through the ZPD by scaffolding
prompts and structuring to support learning
gradual release of responsibility for them to internalize (private speech)

Opportunity for targeted differentiated instruction

Get students who just solved the problem to help others work through their ZPD What do you do with the ZPD? "Each person has an organic intellectualism that results from his or her interactions with the world and that these interactions are almost always socially constrained by factors such as race, class, and gender"
-Gramsci Critical Pedagogy and Vygotsky’s Theory 'Organic Intellectualism' reflects one's socio-economic and cultural position

This suggests that each student not only experiences the world differently, but also that they bring different forms of 'intellectualisms' to the classroom

How does this relate to the Banking Model of education?

Can we think of how this idea lends itself to Paulo Freire and what we have learned about critical Ped?

Why might it be important then, to recognize students' various ZPD?

How might you determine students' ZPD? Does the process vary from subject to subject? Could be as easy as asking!

What are your strengths as a basketball player?
What are the areas you need to improve as a basketball player?

How would you describe yourself academically?
What are your strengths and weaknesses?
Why do you feel this way?

Future Goals:
What do you want to accomplish this year as a player? as a team? as a student? How will you do it? Duncan-Andrade & Morrell:
Identifying Organic Intellectualism/ZPD Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5
Jason St David Talina Jessica Justin
Jon Brittany Billy Shantha Jason Sa
Meredith Lyla Jennifer Zainab Sandra
Steph Nicola Sanja Chris Matt
Lauren Brendan Nicole Desiree Gurpreet Groups Please sit with your assigned groups... (...Or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Scaffolding!) Vygotsky's Basic Principles #1: Children Construct Their Own Knowledge For Vygotsky, higher mental processes are first co-constructed during shared activities between a child and another person.

These exchanges are then internalized by the child and become relevant to future similar exchanges.

This process is valuable between both adults and peers. Contrary to Piaget, Vygotsky believed that learning could foster cognitive development.

The key component here is a concept known as 'Zone of Proximal Development' or 'ZPD'

*Think back to our minds-on when we expand on this... #2: Learning Can Lead to Development Language and making sense of the world (expression, categorization)

Language and development (provides tools for the solution of difficult tasks, pre-planning, mastery of behaviour etc..)

Contrary to Piaget, Vygotsky invested much importance in the role of 'private-speech/self-talk' in the cognitive development of children. #3: Language Critical For Cognitive Development For Vygotsky, cognitive development is predicated by one's cultural environment. (ex. roman numerals limit capacity for math)

Every culture has sets of evolving tools which continually re-frame possibilities for cognitive development.

Language is the most important #4: Development is Inextricable From One's Social Context Intramural Schedule Vygotsky:
Cognitive development is varied and continuous (no stages)

Learning precedes development

Private speech drives cognitive development

Emphasizes the importance of one's culture/environment Piaget:
Cognitive development is mostly the same (stages)

Development precedes learning

Private speech is connected to early cognitive development

Understates the importance of one's culture/environment THROWDOWN!!! vs Test Review *Please refer back to last week's excellent handout on 'Pidget', if you have it...

Key Items to consider in reference to Vygotsky:
1) Types of Development

2) Stages of development

3) Limitations of Piaget's work Recap of Piaget Physical Development:
changes in body structure over time.

Social/Emotional Development:
evolution of one's ability to relate to others and one's self

Cognitive Development:
increase in the complexity and sophistication of our mental processes Types of Development: What children can learn is defined by their capacity at each stage of cognitive development Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development 1) Rigidity of 'Stages':
Does not adequately account for the lack of consistency in children's thinking. Cognitive development is the result of both gradual and abrupt changes in ability (i.e. more fluid).

2) Underestimating children:
Case studies illustrate that even young children can develop capacities for tasks that seem far beyond what their cognitive stage would suggest. (ex. 9 year old expert chess player Vs. a 20 year old novice)

3) Culture and Cognitive development:
While most accept the sequencing of Piaget's stages, Vygotsky et. al. have done research tying cognitive development to culture (i.e. cultural conditions might cause test subjects to misconstrue instructions and/or influence how quickly children develop). Limitations of Piaget's work Last Week... Piaget Vygotsky Drama Auditions Vygotsky's Cultural Tools Cultural tools are essential to cognitive development

These include "real tools" (eg. technology), and "psychological tools" (eg. sign/symbol systems, maps, art, language)

1. Child and adult/older peer engaged in activity
2. Exchange of ideas/cultural tools passed along
3. Child internalizes new tool
4. Child develops self using new tool

Children first receive, then transform tools for understanding. Over time, these are refined with experience. Vygotsky's Cultural Tools For Vygotsky, language is the most important cultural tool, as it allows for the addition of other tools

Private Speech paves the way for cognitive development Private Speech/Self-talk Private Speech Piaget thought 'egocentric' speech meant children were self-centred (unsocialized), but for Vygotsky, private speech moved children toward self-regulation.

Stages of self-regulation:
1. Child regulated by parent
2. Child regulates others
3. Child regulates self audibly
4. Child regulates self silently

(Private speech is most prevalent around age 9, but can continue up through adolescence.)

Private speech is used most often when a task is difficult or frustrating; the harder it is, the louder the speech may be. Private Speech Debate Club Activity: Online Poll Questions 1. Does Vygotsky's theory of ZPD eliminate any possibilities when it comes to self-discovery? I.e. If a child is being guided in a particular direction, will that override the discoveries he may have made on his own?

2. If we agree that students have different ZPDs, then what are the implications for learning in an education system that supports streaming? If students in a classroom are all at a similar level of development, how can they help one another improve?

3. We've been taught that students have different learning styles (i.e. self-motivated vs. collaborative learners.) How does Vygotsky's theory of socio-cultural development dismiss this?

4. How might Vygotsky's ZPD be applied in the classroom in different subject areas? Can you see yourself incorporating this into your lessons?

5. As teachers, how do we deal with students who resent getting help from peers?

6. Are there certain activities or skills that are better learned individually, rather than being co-constructed? Tensions and Critical Questions Critical Questions for Discussion Activity: Online Poll Questions 1. When you have a difficult problem, do you tend to ask for help from others, or try and work the answer out alone?
a) ask for help; b) work it out by myself

2. What type of learner are you?
a) independent; b) collaborative

3. During the Minds On activity, do you think you were:
a) below your ZPD; b) in your ZPD; c) above your ZPD?

4. Is it embarrassing for you if a teacher instructs one of your peers to give you help in the classroom?
a) it's somewhat mortifying; b) I'm ok with getting help

5. Do you agree with streaming in schools?
a) yes; b) no; c) unsure
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