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Unit 2: How Fabric is Made

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Beth Olsen

on 30 January 2018

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Transcript of Unit 2: How Fabric is Made

Chapter 5: The Textile Industry and Home Sewing Patterns
Fabric Manufacturing
Fabric: cloth made from textile fibers and yarns
Woven, knit or produced by other methods

Greige Goods/ Gray Goods: unfinished fabrics
Textile Marketing
Marketing: process of finding or creating a profitable market for specific goods or services

Considers needs and wants of consumers

The Textile Industry
4 Steps in Production
1. Fiber Production
2. Yarn Production
3. Fabric Manufacturing
4. Fabric Finishing
Fiber Production
Fibers: thin, hair-like strands that are the basic units in textiles.

Natural: cotton, wool, flax, and silk
Plant or animal sources


Manufactured: rayon, nylon, spandex, acetate, polyester
liquids that solidify into thin threads

Fabric Finishing
Bleaching - Dying - Printing - Applying Special Coatings

color - texture - pattern - ease of care - other characteristics

Textile Converters: buy and handle greige goods - middle agents between mills and consumers
Sell fabrics to apparel and accessory producers, fabric retailers, specialists for home and industrial use
Yarn Production
Yarns: continuous strands, usually of multiple fibers, ready for knitting, weaving, or other processing of cloth

Mills - spin fiber into yarns
Fabric Consideration
Durability: Resist wear and decay
Resiliency: Bounce back to shape
Luster: Shininess
Elasticity: Stretchiness
Abrasion: Resist friction
Fashion Fabric Sales
collections created for certain end uses
fabric libraries and boards
Research and Development
Improves old
Finds new
creative forward thinking
Textiles Worldwide
Imports: Goods that come into the country from foreign sources
Exports: commercial products sent out to other countries
Trade Deficit: imports is greater than exports
The Future of Textiles
Large firms buy up small ones
Demand increases as standard of living increases
Disposable textiles will become more common
Knits will grow, wovens will decrease
Home Sewing Patterns
Guide Sheets - directions and pictures
Includes tips to purchase all notions and fabrics
Signature Lines - endorsed by "celebrities"
Easy-to-Sew - simple to cut and make
Designing Home Sewing Patterns
Croquis - rough first sketch
Perfecting Patterns
Sloper: the company's basic size, programmed into software
1. Draping on body form
2. Partial muslin proof sewn
3. Full muslin protoype (full-scale trial)
4. Management approval
5. Muslin used to make paper pattern
6. Garment is constructed for photos
Finishing Patterns
7. Grading - marking of each pattern piece in all the sizes to be sold
8. Lay out charts
9. Guide sheet created
10. Pattern envelope developed
11. Tissue pattern, guide sheet and envelope printed and ready for sale
multisize patterns: several sizes on the same pattern
Serger - overlock sewing machine
custom patterns - fit individual measurements
software for home development of patterns
Innovations for the Future
Weaves to Demonstrate
Plain: Basic over under
Basket: Double over under
Twill: Diagonal lines on fabric
Satin:long runs of yarn over

1. Read: http://www.sew4home.com/tips-resources/buying-guide/all-about-fabric-weaves-tutorial
2. And then demonstrate
Blog Post

Do some research on textile innovations world wide. Find a recent article or YouTube Clip and add it to your assignment. Add your thoughts and ideas.
Full transcript