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Genre Focus: Persuasion

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by

Cindy Leisure

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Genre Focus: Persuasion

Genre Focus: Persuasion
Persuasive
writing is a type of writing that aims to convince readers to
think
or
act
in a certain way. All effective persuasive texts have a central
argument
and
evidence
, or reasons that
support
the argument. Writers of persuasive texts may use appeals to
logic
,
emotion
,
ethics
, and
authority
to influence their readers.
Persuasive Techniques
Used by writers to
support
their
opinions
or
arguments
. Writers must decide how best to appeal to their audience. While some appeals are straightforward, others reflect a "hidden agenda" - an attempt to
manipulate
the audience.

Appeal to logic or facts, or appeals to authority (logos)- usually contain

evidence
demonstrating that a writer's argument is reasonable, or
makes sense
. The writer often presents statistics or reasoned thought to
support

his or her argument. Appeal to authority includes
quotations
or
information
from an
expert
.
Appeal to emotion (pathos) stirs a reader's emotions, such as
happiness

or

anger
. Writers use certain

words

or

images
to inspire
these strong emotions.
Appeal to ethics (ethos) addresses a reader's sense of
right

and

wrong
, or

fairness
.
Characteristics of Persuasive Text
Argument
Used in persuasive writing to influence a reader's
ideas
or
actions
. Depending on the type of persuasive text, writers may use different argument structures to more effectively communicate their
ideas
.
Cause and Effect
Tries to convince the reader that one
event
or
action
causes another
event
or
action
.
Authority
Portrays the author as a
reliable
source or
expert
on the topic.
Rhetorical Fallacies
Are
flaws
or
weaknesses
in an argument's
logic
or
reasoning
. Rhetorical fallacies in persuasive texts indicate that a writer's argument may be
invalid
.
Ad hominem
is when a writer attacks a person's
character
instead of responding to his or her
argument
.
Exaggeration

is an overstatement that stretches beyond the
truth
.
Categorical claims
are universal statements that
relate
two types of things.
With a partner...
But first...
Most people believe that, in America, they can become whatever they want to become - even President. Do you believe this? Why or why not? Be prepared to share - Your participation is your grade!

Discuss what it means to be an American. What rights does an American citizen have?
As we read our first pieces of persuasive text,
ask yourself, "Which writer's argument more strongly influences the way you think about the issue?"
Bias
Bias is
favoritism
toward or against something. When you analyze bias in a text, you decide whether the writer's opinion is influenced by his or her
experiences
or
background
. In other words, you determine whether the writer favors an opinion based on
personal
preferences. Bias
influences
the way in which a writer
presents
information. Analyzing bias will help you decide how
strong
a writer's argument is and whether you should
agree
with his or her
opinion
.
To analyze bias in persuasive texts,
pay attention to whether a writer...
treats
both sides
of the issue
fairly
has
personal experience
that
may affect his or her opinions
assumes ideas to be true
without providing
supporting evidence
Page 554-555

"Should Naturalized
Citizens be President?"
In an affirmative position essay, Yinger argues that the "natural-born citizen" clause requiring that U.S. presidents be born in the United States should be amended. He states that the clause violates the concept of democracy and eliminates the possibility that many qualified and loyal foreign-born citizens might become president. In a negative position essay, Spalding argues that the clause is necessary to ensure the allegiance of the president to the United States. He states that the clause provides a balance between U.S. openness and national security concerns. Let's read!
REMEMBER!!
Now let's read and analyze
some persuasive text!
Think
about
this!
The ability to analyze
bias
helps you avoid being
manipulated
into simply accepting a
faulty

argument
to be true. A degree of bias does not necessarily mean that the author's argument is
weak
or
faulty
; you must rely on your own
knowledge
,
experiences
, and
reading

strategies
to evaluate the credibility of an argument. Identifying bias is a very important
life skill
!
Mr. Kenner asked students to suggest a school rule that should be changed. Think of one rule you would like to change. You will be writing a persuasive essay over the next couple of weeks. As your bellringer, complete your Concept Map:
1. Write a sentence stating your opinion of the rule you would like to change in the "My Opinion" box.
2. Write your reasons the rule should be changed in each "Reason" boxes (4 reasons - 1 per box).

After reading...
On page 554, Yinger states that his adopted son is a naturalized citizen. He might feel more strongly about the issue than someone whose family members are all natural-born citizens.
Which type of appeal does Yinger use when he says that the clause violates democracy?
Which type of appeal does Yinger use when he says that Jonah was told that he can't run for president?
On page 555, what emotional
appeal is Spalding presenting?
The emotional desire of
the reader to feel safe.
Is an emotional appeal to
readers' fears regarding
national security effective?
Why or why not?
Yinger compares the past situation of women and minorities with the current situation of naturalized citizens. In what ways are these situations similar? In what ways are they different?
In what way has the Constitution been changed since it was written?
What are the central arguments for and against allowing naturalized citizens to become president?
Respond to Reading
Which argument do you think is more persuasive? Explain, using details from the essays. Your explanation should be at a minimum, half a page!
Objective: Write a persuasive essay to the appropriate audience that establishes a clear thesis or position; considers and responds to the views of others and anticipates and answers reader concerns and counter-arguments, and includes evidence that is logically organized to support the author's viewpoint and that differentiates between fact and opinion.
Argue a Position:
Two writers present their views on a topic in "Should Naturalized Citizens Be President?".
Purpose and Audience: When you argue a position, your purpose is to "take sides" on an issue and try to persuade other people to believe as you do. To persuade readers, you must support your opinion clearly and confidently. Then you must support your opinion and claims with detailed evidence, such as facts and examples. For this essay, your audience is your classmates and your teacher.
Plan:
Opinion
Supporting Evidence
Supporting
Evidence
Response to
Concerns
Draft:
Begin writing your persuasive essay. State your position clearly and explain each fact, reason, and example that supports it. Be sure to use persuasive techniques (look back in your notes), such as repetition and persuasive appeals, to convince your audience of your opinion. This sentence frame might help you get started:
I believe that _______because______.
Revise:
After you have written your first draft, reread it to make sure it is well organized. Determine whether your paragraphs and ideas within each sentence follow a logical order. Make sure that you support each of your claims with convincing evidence.
Edit:
Edit your essay, correcting any errors in grammar, mechanics, and spelling.
Think about some things that your parents do not, or that your school does not, allow you to do. Write a list of things that you think you might be able to write about, with the goal of convincing your parents or the school to change their minds about the topic.
You will write a 1-page essay at the end of this lesson - so make sure you ONLY include topics you can support with arguments!
Persuasive Text Day 1
SENTENCE STATING REASON 1
SENTENCE STATING REASON 2
SENTENCE STATING REASON 3
SENTENCE STATING REASON 4
Sentence stating your opinion of the rule that should be changed
15 MINUTES
BELLRINGER:
Revisit your Concept Map and be sure you...

1. Used
complete sentences
.

2. Stated
ONE RULE
, not several.

3. Provided
4 REAL
reasons for
the need for the rule to be changed
(a real reason would not include "they don't listen to it anyway" or "they don't like it" or "it's uncomfortable.")
On a sheet of notebook paper...
Connect to Today's Reading...
What makes a person truly beautiful? How do advertisements affect your ideas of beauty?
Discuss the variety of people you see in advertisements. Do ads reflect the many different types of people in the world?
With a Partner:
Listen,
stop tanning yourself
and talking about
fishbelly
white.
The color white
is not bad at all.
There are white mornings
that bring us days.



Stop unfolding your
your eyes.
Your eyes are
beautiful.
Sometimes
seeing you in the street
the fold zany
and unexpected



Stop trimming
your nose.
When you
diminish
your nose
your songs
become
little
tinny, muted
and snub.


Stop bleaching
your skin
and talking
about
so much black
is not beautiful
The color black
is not bad
at all.
There are black nights
that rock
us
in dreams.
Better you should
have a nose
impertinent
as a flower,
sensitive
as a root;
wise, elegant,
serious and deep.
A nose that
sniffs
the essence
of Earth. And knows
the message
of every
leaf.
Or, if you must,
bleach only
because it pleases you
to be brown,
to be able to see
for as long
as you can bear it
the whole world's
lighter face
reflected
in your own.
Or, if you must,
tan only because
it makes you happy
to be brown,
to be able to see
for a summer
the whole world's
darker
face
reflected
in your own.
I want to kiss
them
and usually
it is only
old
gorgeous
black people's eyes
I want
to kiss.
As for me,
I have learned
to worship
the sun
again.
To affirm
the adventures of hair.
For we are all
splendid
descendants
of Wilderness,
Eden:
needing only
to see
each other
without
commercials
to believe.
Copied skillfully
as Adam.

Original


as Eve.
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