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Separating mechanical mixtures

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anna anna

on 15 January 2015

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Transcript of Separating mechanical mixtures

Lesson 3.2 Separating Mechanical Mixtures
Complex Mixtures
Using Sieves and Filters
Sieves
are devices that make it possible to separate different elements from one another. They may be used in the preparation of food, the sorting of grains, and even in the separation of different types of building materials. An example of this is gold panning. A sieve is a container that has a wire mesh in it. When you shake the sieve it starts to work.




Filters
Filtration
is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the filtrate, while particles that are removed are called the residue. Oversize solids in the fluid are retained, but the separation is not complete.
Floating and Settling
-
parts of a mechanical mixture may float or sink in water
- you can skim off the parts floating on the water
-
settling
is where part of a mixture falls to the bottom, and you can pour off the water on top
- sand and cocoa settle in water
- gold miners used to use settling to separate the gold from the dust during the gold rush
- settling is used to treat sewage in waste water treatment facilities
Sorting
Separating mechanical mixtures
When you sort your laundry by colour or use a coffee filter to separate the different types of matter in coffee, you are separating mechanical mixtures. There are many different methods to separate heterogeneous mixtures.

How do you separate:

- pennies from a pile of change
- oil and water
- the components of blood
- magnetic parts of a landfill
- seashells from the sand
A simple way of separating mechanical mixtures is by
sorting

-
physically separating
components of a heterogeneous mixture

- similar parts are together

- only works with
larger objects
like m&m's
-
mechanical mixtures that include solutions
- blood = red blood cells + plasma (solution of water dissolved with nutrients)
- uses the method of floating and settling
- centrifuges speed up the process


Using A Magnet
- some metals and alloys are attracted to magnets

- others are not

- magnets can be used to separate magnetic objects from those that are not when mining for metals in a landfill


Dissolving Soluble Components

-some things are more soluble than others
-many substances can be dissolved by water
(it's the universal solvent, meaning that it can dissolve
many different types of matter)
-
dissolving
= chemically bonding solvent+solute to make solution

Bibliography
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-a-sieve.htm

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sieve

http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_solution.html

Mixtures and Solutions by Carol Ballard

http://people.chem.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/water/watpur.html

http://www.ducksters.com/science/chemistry/separating_mixtures.php

http://www.waste-management-world.com/articles/print/volume-15/issue-3/features/eureka-mining-of-metals-in-an-ashfill.html

https://sciencesource.pearsoncanada.ca/quizzes/quiz_08_3pvz04.htm
Centrifuges
The heavier particles move to the outside
of the cylinder as the centrifuge spins
allowing the mixture to be separated.


- a mixture might have multiple
floating
(less dense component "floats" to top) liquids, which you can skim or pour off
- melted chicken fat can be skimmed off chicken soup
-in filtration there are multiple layers so it is extremely precise
-process of passing heterogeneous mixture through multiple layers of small holes to separate solids from liquids and gases
-sieving there is only one layer
-separating larger pieces of matter
-larger particles in sieving get stuck on the top
- in filtration it gets stuck in the filter

vs.
What is the difference of sieving and filtering?
Full transcript