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The Nature, Characteristics, And Types Of Society
Transcript of The Nature, Characteristics, And Types Of Society
Sociological and Anthropological
Characteristics of a Society
- members live and work together for mutual benefit. Group as well as individual ends can be achieved only through collective, and collaborative manner or teamwork.
National or cultural identity
- members of society shares a common culture which enables them to follow patterns of action for harmonious existence with others.
- members use a common language to communicate with each other.
- society is an economic, social, and industrial organization.
- it is the largest social unit.
- members live in a definite geographical area.
Ability to sustain membership
- it has the ability to endure, produce, and sustain several generation of membership.
Hunting, fishing, and gathering society.
This is one of the earliest forms of society. It is characterized by subsistence economies that rarely produce surplus. Anthropologists estimate that men hunted for food at least one million years ago. People survived by searching and gathering food and by a small game of hunting wild animals. Its basic unit of social organization were the household and the local clan, to which most of the hunting and gathering activities were organized.
This society is believed to have existed 12,000 to 15,000 years ago. It gave way to the first breakthrough in subsistence economy, which was the development of agriculture. During these time, people began to plant and cultivate crops rather than just to harvest whatever nature provided them.
represents a geographical aggregate with boundaries, a similar government, and a common culture, where members live together for mutual benefit.
This type of society depends on herding and domestication of animals for food and clothing. Animals provide milk, fuel, sheared fur, and even blood. Pastoral groups rely partly on horticulture to subsist.
The agricultural society is also characterized by the use of plow and irrigation in production. Because of this, men become capable of producing huge surpluses.
The advent of industrialization in Europe some 200 years ago brought about the third major revolution in production. The substitution of mechanical, electrical and fossil-fuel energy for human and animal labor caused an explosive growth in productivity, not only of goods but also of knowledge and technology.
The post-industrial society depends on special knowledge to bring about continuing progress in technology. The spread of computer industries is one of the characteristics of this society. Highly trained specialists work to increase the capabilities of computers.