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Effective Group Work

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Martin Webster

on 24 November 2014

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Transcript of Effective Group Work

Effective Group Work
Workforce Development
Focus on:
Group work processes
Group work...the 4 P's - Practicalities / Planning / Priorities / Pace
Identification and Assessment of individual need in a group work situation
Working with targeted individuals in a group work context
Development of effective group work that is based on common ground and commonality of need
Seeing the bigger picture - linking your work to required outcomes
Dealing with issues as they arise (behaviour management)
Group work processes
Group work...the 4 P's
1. Practicalities
- what do we have to consider?
Disability
Age
Race
Gender
Faith/Belief
Sexual Orientation
Income
Geographical location
Other
Group Processes
Tuckman - 1965
2. Planning
3. Priorities
4. Pace
DISABILITY

Consider potential issues...

Many of the barriers people face can be prevented if a little thought is given to how and where a service is provided.


The Social Model of Disability focuses on getting rid of the barriers:

Badly designed buildings
No Lifts / lifts not working
No parking spaces
Hypocritical or prejudiced attitudes
Poor job prospects
Poverty and low income
Inaccessible Transport
Isolated Families
Insufficient number of support workers/ enablers/ communicators

...etc
Age

Consider...

Assumptions about the age range, capability and generation viewpoints - Example: assuming that all older people share the same interests

Teenage parents, children as carers (young carers), elderly as service users

etc...
Race

Consider...

Communication formats, language needs, translation and cultural consideration
Impact of living in a majority white environment
Direct and indirect racial harassment

etc...
Gender

Work with...Women / girls
and
men / boys

Transgender (people who were born with a biological gender that they do not psychologically identify with)

Consider...

Caring responsibility of the individual
The fact that many lone parents experience high socio-economic inequality.
Physical access (e.g. pushchairs and toddlers),
Single fathers - baby changing facilities are often situated in women's toilets.
Stereotyping

Etc...
Faith/Belief

Consider...

Respecting and reflecting diverse cultures, lifestyles, customs and values for women and men, boys and girls (e.g. single sex provision)
Observing food rules including rules about preparation and storage of food.
Observing religious festivals and celebrations and the impact on your sessions
etc...
Sexual Orientation

LGBT - Lesbian/Gay/Bi-sexual/Trans Gender & Hetrosexual

Consider...

Assumptions about partners or family types, invisibility, dignity.
Assumptions that all people are in heterosexual relationships.
Homophobia - use of language
etc...
Income

Low or no income, unemployed, part time and seasonal workers

Consider...
Access to personal transport and information technology
Child care costs, shift work, etc.
"Double disadvantaged groups" (e.g. single young parents, older visually impaired person)

etc...
Geographical Location

Single dwelling, village, town, rural, urban

Consider...

Access to services
Transport
Isolation
Potential socio-economic gap

etc...
Other

For example:

Behaviour
Carers
Parents
Ex- offenders
Pregnant Women

Consider...

Opening hours, accessibility of information, cost and availability of relief care.
Mobility /Accessibility, transport, parking.
Toilet facilities

etc...
Group work...the 4 P's - Practicalities / Planning / Priorities / Pace
Setting aims and objectives of the session
Generic - group remit
Issues arising
effective signposting
clearly defined/purposeful - exit strategies (what next)
dealing with issues
Not training - critique of practice
tasks before session
New Groups
Family Groups
Existing Groups
Dads Groups
EY Groups
Parents Forums
Advisory Boards
One Stop Shop
Sat Eve - Crisis Group
Multi agency
Targeted and Vulnerable groups
Young Carers
Youth Parliament
CYP with Disabilities
Shared good/best practice
Session 3
1.15pm - 2.00pm: Identification and Assessment of Need (RCA)
2.00pm - 2.10pm: What is Action Learning?
2.10pm - 2.55pm: ALS 1 Developing an effective group
2.55pm - 3.00pm: Group Feedback

3.00pm - 3.15pm: AFTERNOON BREAK
Session 1
9.30am - 9.40am: Welcome and Registration
9.40am - 9.50am: Focus of the day
9.50am - 10.15am: Introduction and Group Agreement activities
10.15am - 10.30am: Group Process (Tuckman Model)

10.30am - 10.45am: MORNING BREAK
Session 2
10.45am - 10.55am: What issues do we face when working with Groups?
10.55am - 11.15am: "The 4 P's" - Practicalities + discussion
11.15am - 11.45am: "The 4 P's" - Planning + discussion
11.45am - 12.15pm: "The 4 P's" - Priorities and Pace + discussion

12.15pm - 1.15pm: LUNCH BREAK
Session 4
3.15pm - 4.00pm: ALS 2 Identifying and working towards required outcomes
4.00pm - 4.15pm: Group Feedback
4.15pm - 4.30pm: Ending and Evaluation
Session 1 - setting the scene
Tuckman Model - Feedback

Group Work Process - adding value to the session

Typical experiences in groups
Session 2 - the 4 P's
Practicalities:
- What to expect in a group work situation
- Key considerations

Planning:
- Examining best practice planning mechanisms
- Offering example group work planning templates

Priorities:
- Working with individuals in a group work context
- Aims and Objectives - what impact/outcome is required?

Pace:
- Linking to process
- Building momentum (inc signposting and exit strategy)
Session 3 - Root Cause Analysis and ALS1
- Understanding the concept of RCA
- RCA Model
- What is Action Learning?
- Issues we face in groups
Session 4 - ALS 2 and next steps
- ALS 2 - Outcome identification - "Kicking the Leaves"
- What impact can we have?
- Next Steps - how we develop our groups from here?
9.30am - 9.40am: Welcome and Registration
9.40am - 10.00am: Introduction and Group Agreement
10.00am - 10.15am: Icebreaker and Aims/Objectives
10.15am - 10.30am: Group Process (Tuckman Model)

10.30am - 10.45am: MORNING BREAK
Welcome
and Intro's
Name
Role
Favorite Movie
How do we make an
effective Group Agreement
- Activity

Break into 2 groups
GROUP AGREEMENTS
Focus of the day
Personality Activity
Why do we see the same people in different ways?

To what extent does our view of ourselves influence our views of others?...and if it does, why?
What do we dislike about others, which might be an unreasonably harsh reaction?
What do we tolerate in others, which might be an unreasonably generous reaction?

Where do these biases come from?
Sub Group Activity

- 10-15 Personality Descriptors

Feedback
Nelson Mandela
What are your own dominant features of personality?

2-3 characteristics - Share as a subgroup
Morning Break
When and why we may have
to amend Tuckman's Model...

Professional Judgement!
Planning:
- Examining best practice planning mechanisms
- Offering example group work planning
Priorities:
- Working with individuals in a group work context
- Aims and Objectives - what impact/outcome is required?
Pace:
- Linking to process
- Building momentum (inc signposting and
exit strategy)
Action Learning Sets
A group of usually 4 – 8 people that meet on a regular basis (Each term as agreed by SMT) to discuss issues of personal or mutual importance
Sets will have ground rules and will be facilitated and recorded appropriately
Sets enable participants (Presenters) to make commitment to actions that they may not have previously explored

The 3 Stages of Action Learning Sets
Identifying and clarifying the problem
Listing possible actions
Selecting which specific actions to take

Action Learning Sets are NOT about giving people what YOU think are the answers…they are about supporting people to come to their own decisions and actions.
What is an
Action Learning Set?
To give participants the opportunity to engage in shared learning
To enhance opportunities to explore and learn more about practice
To support innovation
To allow time for reflection on current practice – but encourage action
To allow participants to work through issues/problems/concerns thoroughly
To build up trust and professional relationships within Action Learning Sets
To enable the development of individuals
To assist in the development of Action Plans – putting actions into practice after each set.
Why use
Action Learning?
Action Learning is:-
An Accelerated Learning Tool
Focus on an individual
It’s about solving problems and getting things done
A real look at issues/concerns
Not a ‘one off’ session – something to base Team Meetings around
What is Action Learning?
Agree termly meeting dates
Each member has a turn to present on a termly basis and is responsible for feeding back on any agreed actions.
Agree ground rules (confidentiality, attendance, respect, listening etc)
Agree roles (and alternate on a termly basis) – Presenter/Facilitator/Participants (recording)
Carry out the real ALS!
ALS Sessions
Darlington
Workforce Development
Action Learning Sets
(ALS)
RCA (Root Cause Analysis)
Activity
What is RCA?
SCENARIO

"Community Centre Parents Board".

The local parents are community members who are part of the board to represent the community.


- "Kick off"
- "Escalation Point"
- "Lead up"
- "Root Cause"
Role Plays and Activity
Planning Virtual Groups
PLANNING THE GROUP
Selecting Monitoring and Evaluation Tools

Decide what you want to monitor and what tool(s) you will use to do it.
Decide how goal accomplishment will be determined
PLANNING THE GROUP
8. Review the Literature
Evidenced-based Practice
Articles and book chapters that present case examples or qualitative studies of similar groups
Empirically based articles or book chapters that present findings
World Catalogue (or other data-bases) to search for books written on similar group experiences
Field-tested and evidenced-based manuals and curriculum for conducting a similar group
PLANNING THE GROUP

Securing financial support:
- How will expenses associated with the group be met?
Making special arrangements:
- Consider any special needs
- Make arrangements that will
accommodate all members’
ability to attend
PLANNING THE GROUP
Preparing the environment:

Physical setting – room size, space, seating arrangements, furnishings, atmosphere, and special arrangements
PLANNING THE GROUP

Contracting for group procedures:

duration and frequency of meetings
attendance requirements
confidentiality of discussions
time and place of meetings
attendance fees, monitoring or evaluation procedures

...or other rules governing behavior in a group - how discussions will take place, etc.
PLANNING THE GROUP
Contracting / Group Agreement:

Contract – a written or verbal agreement between two or more members of a group.

Contracting for member goals – roles, goals and how individual goals fit with the group goals.
PLANNING THE GROUP
5. Orienting Members:
- Worker screens members for appropriateness and orients to group.
- Explaining purpose of group
- Familiarizing members with group procedures
- Screening members for appropriateness
PLANNING THE GROUP
Homogeneity
– members have a similar purpose for being there and have some personal characteristics in common.

Heterogeneity
– diversity of members’ culture, coping skills, life experiences, and levels of expertise.

Diversity
– development, age, gender, and socio-cultural factors

Size
– varies depending on the objectives of group and attributes of members.

Dynamic
- Open or Closed group?
PLANNING THE GROUP
Composing the Group:

- Members recruited according to their needs and the requirements of the group-as-a-whole.
PLANNING THE GROUP
3. Recruiting Members:
Considering sources from which potential members can be identified and referred to the group:
- contacting potential members directly or key people in the network of potential members
- mailing and posting announcements
- preparing television and radio announcements
- web-sites
- issuing press releases
PLANNING THE GROUP

Sponsorship: pay attention to the potential fit

Membership: who should be recruited
PLANNING THE GROUP
2. Assessing Potential Sponsorship and Membership:

** Purpose, focus, goals, and sanctions of the group are conditioned by the setting and the clientele.**
PLANNING THE GROUP

Statement of purpose can be:
Group-Worker-Generated
Agency-Staff-Generated
Member-Generated
Community-Generated
PLANNING THE GROUP
Statement of Purpose - having a:
PLANNING THE GROUP
ACTIVITY!
1. Establishing the Group’s Purpose:

- Statement of Purpose – answers “What are we doing here together? And helps prevent lack of direction.
PLANNING THE GROUP
Planning Model for Group Work:
1. Establishing the Group’s Purpose
2. Assessing Potential Sponsorship
3. Recruiting Members
4. Composing the Group
5. Orienting Members
6. Contracting
7. Preparing the Environment
8. Reviewing the literature
9. Selecting monitoring and evaluation tools
10. Preparing a written group proposal
11. Planning virtual groups
PLANNING THE GROUP
...things to consider
Planning includes:
Forming the group
On-going adjustments

Forming the Group:
Individual
Group as a Whole
Environment
PLANNING THE GROUP
“Planning marks the beginning of the worker’s involvement in the group endeavor.”
PLANNING THE GROUP

10. Preparing a written group proposal
PLANNING THE GROUP

We asked practitioners and they told us that some things to consider would be...

– Learning Styles / Level of ability / Dynamics (e.g. ganging up on, power, etc) / Safeguarding / Health and Safety / First Aid / Needs of individuals (e.g. peanut allergy) / Ownership / Resources, Planning and Bookings

•Expect the unexpected – Conflict / Disruption / Differing opinions and outcomes / Outside Factors / Good and positive environment

-Flexible and Adaptable
-Time Managed
-Value of joint working and co-facilitation

•Policy and Procedure considerations
Priorities…

Good preparation with group members – involve them, get them “on board” with what you are trying to achieve and focus on the positive outcomes for them.

Give the group ownership, positively reinforce the good work and effectively challenge any issues. Share tasks and hand over responsibility.

We asked practitioners and they told us to consider

Pace…

Key considerations:
•Information and effective preparation is key…this will set the pace

•Consider what you need to achieve in the time you are allocated

•Map out your sessions effectively – refer back to the planning models


Group Discuss -
•Endings – how do you signpost? / Where do you signpost to?

•Exit Strategy

-How do you do it effectively?
-What support do you put in place?
-Is there an opportunity for progression – community volunteering?
-What are the next steps for this individual?
Group agreement:
Group agreements help to establish safe environments for us to engage with potentially sensitive issues.

Firstly, split into 2 groups and spend 5-10 minutes discussing:

•how they would like to be treated in the group
•how they would like to feel within the group.

Discuss, develop the Group Agreement and feedback
give 4 dominant personality features
Stage 5: Adjourning

This is about completion and disengagement, both from the tasks and the group members. Individuals will be proud of having achieved much and glad to have been part of such an enjoyable group. They need to recognise what they've done, and consciously move on. Some authors describe stage 5 as "Deforming and Mourning", recognising the sense of loss felt by group members.
We asked practitioners and they told us about their typical experiences in groups...


•Choice – some groups are forced together or have no choice but to work with each other…in these cases the Tuckman Model may have a different order to it. ‘Storming’ may come quicker and last longer/go on throughout as an underlying current/theme.

•Considering where the group are from – e.g. Social Care referral. Possible conflict outside of the group -
any examples?

•Prep – Pre Group development work. “It won’t just happen!” – telephone calls/visits/setting the scene with group members (families/individuals)

•Consider the needs of the individual – find out the info available about those in the group. If they have been referred to you, you need to know a profile of the individual.
What issues do we face when working with groups?

Activity
- based on real experiences

Sub groups (1-2 people per group to feedback their issue)
8 Step
Model

Activity
Lunch Break
Afternoon Break
An outcome is a change in a target audience’s skills, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, status, or life condition brought about by experiencing a program

Outcomes develop over time. Note that:

short-term outcomes
are likely to be changes in skills, attitudes, and knowledge
medium-term outcomes
often include changes in behavior and decision making
long-term outcomes
may involve changes in status or life conditions
Whole Group to split into their own professional groups
- Outcome Activity
Identifying the impact...

Going back to the issues identified at the start of the day

SMARTER TARGETS - Activity
Outcomes Process - Activity

Group's to feedback
Any Questions?
Evaluation
Activity - The GB Olympic Team
Statement of Purpose
Things to consider...
...consider:

Organisation and set up skills – the physical environment

Have a plan B, C, D, E…

Focus regarding the strength of the worker – decision making…how do you deal with issues effectively
(refer to your Group Agreement – Ownership – One to ones)

Timing is vital – ensure you have 15 mins for matters arising
FOCUS - What you are committed to doing

DIRECTION - How you are going to do it

INTENT - What you intend to achieve
3.
PAUSE

5.
IMPROVE

2.
PLAN

4.
INNOVATE
8.
REFLECT

7.
EVALUATE

6.
DO

1.
IDENTIFY

You are a staff team working in a community and you have been asked to coordinate a...
Community "Day Trip" Activity
- a day at the beach
(seaside trip)

Group Work Guide
- Activity

We spoke to leaders and
managers and they said...
Possible Stage 6?

Reforming: the group coming back together after the initial task has been completed.

Positives - continued group development, possible progression, etc.

Negatives - stagnation, possible lack of progression, members at different levels, etc
Any other key considerations?

Open question and group discussion
Benefits of a Statement of Purpose for your Groups?
•Golden Thread Comparison Activity - Seaside Trip

- What do you/your organisation want to achieve?
(impact/outcome)

- What does the individual service user want to achieve?
(impact/outcome)
PACE!
What issues do we face when working with groups?
- this mornings activity!
Split into groups and carry out ALS based on issues identified
- feed back
Previous Group Example -
Parenting Training Group
Full transcript