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The Middle Colonies
Transcript of The Middle Colonies
Quakers were known as The Society of Friends and were one of the largest religious groups in New Jersey.
They believed in:
a. informal religion and simple dress
b. the equality of men and women before God
c. nonviolence and religious tolerance for all
Economy of the Colonies
The Middle colonies combined the best qualities of both the Southern and the New England colonies. With fertile land and a good climate, they were able to grow large amounts of staple crops.
The Southern colonies grew cash crops. These were grown out of consumer desires to have them.
The New England colonies grew enough to feed their family.
The Middle colonies grew staple crops. These were grown because everyone always needed them.
Examples: wheat, barley, oats
Slaves were more important here than in the New England colonies, but still less important than in the Southern colonies. They often worked in cities as skilled laborers, such as blacksmiths and carpenters. Others worked on farms and on ships as the shipbuilding industry grew.
However, between 1700 and 1775, about 135,000 indentured servants moved to the Middle colonies, with more than half going directly to Pennsylvania.
Trade was also important to the Middle colonies. Wheat was exported to Britain and the West Indies.
New York & New Jersey
Peter Stuyvesant was the director of the Dutch colony, New Netherland.
In 1664, an English fleet captured the New Netherland center of trade, the town of New Amsterdam.
Stuyvesant handed over the colony without a single shot being fired.
There were four Middle colonies
Give us your land!
New Netherland became New York.
New Amsterdam became New York City.
In 1664, the land between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers became known as New Jersey.
Peace and love, man!
As a result of these audacious beliefs, Quakers were persecuted. Quaker leader, William Penn hoped to found a larger colony where Quakers could be safe.
In 1681, King Charles II gave Penn a charter for the land west of New Jersey. This colony became known as Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania's capital was named Philadelphia, which means "the city of brotherly love".
Characteristics of the Middle Colonies
New York: Dutch Influence
New Jersey: Diverse Population
Pennsylvania: Founded by Quakers
**Delaware was called Delaware at
this time but was still a part of
New York: successful farming of staple crops, large trade center
New Jersey: large workforce made of slaves and indentured servants
Pennsylvania: active trade with Britain and the West Indies
Role of Women in the Middle Colonies
Women made important contributions to the colonies.
Many ran farms and businesses.
clothing & grocery stores, bakeries, and drugstores.
Others practiced medicine.
Often working as:
nurses and midwives.
However, colonial laws and customs limited their economic opportunities.
Most worked in the home, where they managed children and households. Sometimes earning money by selling butter or washing clothes.
Founding the Middle Colonies
New York: Originally founded by the Dutch at the city of New Amsterdam. The English captured it in 1664, renaming it New York City and the area surrounding it New York.
New Jersey: Founded by two English proprietors who were given the land by the Duke of York.
Founded by William Penn after king Charles II gave him a charter for the land west of New Jersey.
In 1682, the Duke of York sold William Penn the region south of Pennsylvania. It became known as Delaware and remained a part of Pennsylvania until 1776.