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HWH Muhammad and the Rise of Islam
Transcript of HWH Muhammad and the Rise of Islam
What happened to Muhammad in 610?
What was Arabia like before Muhammad?
After Muhammad, Islamic leaders created an empire:
The Islamic Empire had well-trained troops that conquered nearby regions
The massive empire led to great wealth for Muslims & new opportunities to spread Islam
After years of attacks, Muhammad & his followers fled to Medina
This migration was known as the Hijrah
In Medina, Muhammad gained new converts who put Islam above their families & clans
He taught respect for Christians & Jews (“People of the Book”)
Muhammad created Islam
Muhammad’s work brought him into contact with Jewish & Christian merchants
In 610, Muhammad was told by the angel Gabriel that he was a prophet sent to Earth by God
He began preaching a new monotheistic faith called Islam (“surrender to God”)
Who was Muhammad?
Around 600 AD, a new monotheistic religion began called Islam:
The faith was founded by the prophet Muhammad
His followers, called Muslims, spread Islam throughout the Middle East, Africa, Asia, & Europe
In 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca with 10,000 troops & conquered the city
He destroyed the god statues in the Ka’aba, leaving only the statue for Allah
This time, the people in Mecca converted to Islam
In 632, Muhammad died
Reactions to Islam:
By 613, Muhammad began preaching his new ideas in Mecca
Some people were attracted to Islam
But, many people feared Muhammad’s growing popularity & that Mecca would lose its status as a holy city
Muhammad’s early life:
He was born in Mecca in 570 into a poor clan, was orphaned at a young age, & was raised by his grandparents
As an adult, Muhammad became an honest & successful merchant
He married a wealthy widow & started a family
Today, Islam is the world’s fastest growing religion with more than 1 billion followers throughout the world
The teachings of Mohammed were written down in the Qur'an (Koran), the holy book of Islam
Followers of Islam are called Muslims who believe in one God, called Allah
Allah is the same God worshiped by Jews & Christians
Muslims believe Muhammad was the last of God’s prophets
Muhammad and the Rise of Islam Ch. 13
By 750 AD, Muslim leaders built an empire
Most Arabs were polytheistic
Arabia was not united under a single gov’t, but Arabs did have a common language (Arabic)
Most Arabs lived in desert tribes which were centered around families & were ruled by clans
The Arabian Peninsula is a desert region with little fertile soil or farming
Arabia, the Birthplace of Islam
Arabs made pilgrimages to Mecca to visit the Ka’aba
Mecca was also a religious city; The Ka’aba was a cube that held statues of hundreds of gods
But, Arabia was the intersection of 3 continents (Africa, Asia, & Europe) = an important region for trade & had lots of cultural diffusion
Beginning of the Islamic Empire
Reactions to Islam