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4--MODERN GENETICS & CHANGES OVER TIME

Inheritance and Evolution
by

Lisa OConnor

on 4 November 2016

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Transcript of 4--MODERN GENETICS & CHANGES OVER TIME

Inheritance and Evolution
Book C:
Chapter 4 and Chapter 5

Vocab--CODOMINANCE--neither allele is masked
ex. Blood Type--AB

I.Human Inheritance—controlled by:

1.single genes 2 alleles------Dd, dd, DD
2 distinct phenotypes-dominant or recessive

2.single genes multiple alleles--Blood Type
--A, B, O, AB
--there are three alleles that control this
--AB are codominant alleles
--O is recessive
--you still only get two alleles however there are 3 options!




Chapter 4:
Section 1: Human Inheritance
We will be going to the computer lab for Thurs. and Friday classes to research and build your own brochure about a specific genetic disorder. You will be working in partners or groups of 3 to research the different genetic disorders and make a brochure to present to the class.
Section 2: Human Genetic Disorders
I.Selective Breeding—ways to receive the traits you want
a.Inbreeding—crossing 2 individuals with similar characteristics—genetically similar, leads to disorders

b.Hybridization—cross 2 genetically different individuals—best traits from both parents, ex. Corn resistant to disease, many kernels

II.Cloning—exactly same as original-plants easy/okay, animals/humans not

III.Genetic Engineering—genes from one organism are transferred to another

IV.Human Genome Project—Main Goal is to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome, 30,000 genes, 3,000 bases
Section 3: Advances in Genetics
I.Diversity—1.7 million species of organisms—group of similar organisms mate, offspring
II.Fossils—found similar to living but bigger/smaller ex. Sloths
3-- Darwin's Theory
I.Fossils—past organisms different than today

II.Similarities in early development—related common ancestor
ex. Opossum, chicken, fish, salamander

a.Similarities means all evolved from human ancestor, homologous structures: similar structures that related species inherited from common ancestor.
Section 2: Evidence of Evolution
I.Fossils—bones or shells of animals buried in sediments—layers of sediments cover dead organisms

II.Petrified fossils—remains that become buried in sediments changed into rock

III.Molds/casts—when the shells/hard parts gradually dissolve, the empty space that’s left
IV.Preserved Remains—Ex.mammoth in ice
Ch. 5 Section 3 Fossil Record
Instructions:
Cystic Fibrosis
Sickle Cell Disease
Hemophilia
Down Syndrome
Section 2-Human Genetic Disorders
a. Pedigree—used to trace traits in humans—
can track ordinary traits of genetic disorders -"family tree"-traces particular traits

b. Karyotype—now used to show scientists/doctors how many chromosomes are in your cells this shows whether there is a mutation
II. How scientists trace the inheritance of traits:
III. Galapagos Islands—organisms
a. Compare to South American
b. Compare to other Islands
c. Similar, but different characteristics
IV. Adaptations—trait that helps organisms survive and reproduce
a. Ex. birds beaks shapes sizes, finches
b. Ex. Bright flowers attract insects, plants poisonous
Human hand adaptation activity
V. Evolution (INTELLIGENT DESIGN) —plants & animals on islands faced different conditions than on mainland, caused them to gradually change over many generations to adapt better to area—scientific theory
Section 3 (cont.)
VI.Natural Selection—org. better adapted to environment survive and reproduce, others do not
a.Overproduction—produce more offspring than can survive, not enough resources
b.Variations—dif. Between ind. Of same species—inherit helpful characteristics

c.Competitions—resources scarce, compete with each other to survive

d.Selections—adapted to environment, more likely to survive

e.Environmental Change—effect organisms ability to survive
III. Similar body structures—dog leg, bird wing, dolphin fin
IV. Scientists now compare DNA and Protein structure to see evolutionary relationships

a. If DNA is similar, common ancestor, by comparing sequence of N bases you can see how closely related—closer—more similar
i. Ex. Elephant shrew closely related to elephant (PICTURE p. 151)
V. Branching trees—classifying

VI. New species—group of individuals
remain isolated from the rest of the
species long enough to evolve different traits
V.Fossil’s Age:
a.Relative dating—comparing fossils, shows whether ones older or younger in layers if preserved from original—no exact date
b.Radioactive Dating—actual age
c.Fossils show extinct organisms
VI. Geologic Time Scale—calendar of Earth’s history (look up picture online)
a. Precambrian time (longest, few)
b. Paleozoic Era
c. Mesozoic Era (Cretaceous Period—mass extinction)
d. Cenozoic Era
Toilet paper
What you’re going to do:
1.Pick groups of 2-3
2.Research and then make Brochure
a.Make sure to cite the websites you use
b.Make sure you answer each of the questions in your own words
c.Use pictures, graphs, etc. to make the brochure appealing
3.Present your brochure (genetic disorder) to the class.
4.You will have 2 class periods to work on the brochure and one class period to present your brochure to the class.
http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k2humancsomaldisorders.html
VI. Mass extinction--many org. go extinct at same time (climate change hypothesis)
3.Many genes that act together--height, skin color
--many different options
--more than one gene controls works together to control the trait
--ex. atleast 4 genes control height

II.Sex Linked genes--ex. colorblindness
--the alleles are attached to the sex chromosome: X or Y
--they can be dominant or recessive alleles
--ex. colorblindness--is a recessive allele attached to the X chromosome--
--in order for girl to have it, both X's have to have it attached
--in order for boy to have it just the X has to have it


Cri du chat
Cystic Fibrosis
Down Syndrome
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia
Gaucher Disease
Hemophilia
Huntington's disease
Neurofibromatosis
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Sickle Cell Disease
Tay-Sachs
Wilson Disease
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
Achondroplasia
Options for Genetic Disorder Project:
Trisomy 13
Trisomy 18
I. Genetic Disorder--abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
a. some caused by mutations in DNA of genes
b. some caused by changes in overall structure or number of chromosomes
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/
www.genome.gov
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