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The French and Indian War

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of The French and Indian War

The French
Indian War -France had also colonized North America during the mid
-Very few French actually settled in the New World
-Only 2 major settlements (Quebec and Montreal) were founded
-The population of New France was only 4000 in 1650 New France -The economy of New France changed over the decades
-First was based on fishing, but changed to furs as the French moved further inland FUR TRADE -Fur was initially gained by trading with Native Americans
-Furs were used in clothing back in Europe
-Fur from N. American animals was in huge demand by early 1700's
-The fur trade became the main stable of the New France economy
-This brought traders and trappers, but no families and settlers to New France -The fur trappers were usually single men
-Interacted a lot with local Native Americans
-Taught survival tecniques, traded/worked with them, and many French trappres took Native American wives
-Created good relationship between France and Native Americans, but did not give settlers a reason to come to the New World Jesuits Another group of French settlers were the Jesuit missionaries
Attempted to spread Catholicism to the Native Americans
Got along well with most tribes, but were constantly attacked/killed by the Iroquois The fur trade was successful, but New France still had very few settlers
Other than Montreal and Quebec, the rest of New France was dotted with small forts, missions and trading posts
King of Frence made Montreal a royal colony and this encouraged a few more settlers
The population of New France eventually reached 75,000 but was much smaller than the British Colonies French and British Relations -France and Britain were the two most powerful nations in the world by mid 1700's
-Were constantly competing for control of the world
-Had a lot of bad blood between each other as well
-Fought the Hundred Years War in medieval times
-Engaged in 6 wars with each other between 1660-1750 The British The French -Pop. of 75,000
-No army, 3000 colonial
-Good relations w/(most)NA
-Large amount of claimed
land, but concentrated pop.
-Many frontier forts
-Economy based primarily
on fur trade, not diversified -Pop. of 1.3 million
-2000 British soldiers stationed in the colonies
-Many colonial militias
-Poor relations w/NA
-Diverse economy
-Growing colonies made claims into areas of New France NATIVE AMERICANS NA dominated the large unsettled areas of New France
Tribes around the Great Lakes supported the French and were recruited as fighters
Cherokee supported the British
The Iroquois would not take a side EARLY TENSION IN N. AMERICA Pop. of the British colonies continued to climb
British trappers and traders began operating in New France, specifically the Ohio River Valley
Settlers in western Virg. and Penn. began laying claim to unsettled land in New France
This upset the govt. of New France, and ordered Pierre-Joseph Celoron on an expidition to re-assert the French claim. Celoron Expedition -Set out on June 15, 1749 from Montreal
-Expedition consisted of 215 French Canadians and 55 NA
-Covered 3000 miles by canoe and foot from June-November
-Nailed copper+lead plates to trees at the critical river junctures along the way to enforce the French claim
-Evicted British traders and trappers as he encountered them, but these British mostly ignored him
-Also threatened the NA caught trading with the British, particularly a Miami chief named Old Briton.
-This offended some Iroquois in the expedition who returned home and stole the French plates along the way 1. The British began negotiating w/ NA in the Ohio Valley in 1749
2. Virg. and Penn. encourage settlers
3. On June 21, 1752 NA allied with the French attacked the Miami NA village of Pickawillay
4. The French spend the spring of 1753 constucting forts and capturing British traders in the ORV TENSIONS ESCALATE -Gov. Robert Dinwiddie of Virg. wanted to push his colony's claim of the ORV
-October, 1753 sent expedition to press Virg. rights in the territory
-Virginia militia led by 21 year old Major George Washington
-Met with commanders of several French forts,
-Every one of them resolved not to give up the French claim First Shots
Battle of Jumonville Glen Washington and his militia were ordered to reinforce another small group of men constructing a fort at one of the river junctures
Wash. and his men learned the 500 French troops had captured the area and built Ft. Duquesne
Wash's troops and NA allies surprised the French and attacked the fort on May 28, 1754
Killed many French but failed to take Ft. Duquesne because of small numbers
-Wash and his few militiamen fell back and built Ft. Necessity to wait for a French counterattack
-Was reinforced by 100 British troops and 270 colonial militiamen
-Attacked by 600 French Canadians+NA on July 3, 1754
-No guarantee of Brit. reinforcements, so Wash was forced to surrender
-These opening battles resulted in 65 French+105 British casualties BATTLE OF FT. NECESSITY News of the fighting reached Europe in August
France and Britian resoponded by sending military forces to the New World in early 1755
The British navy also began to attack French ships=merchant+naval
The small naval engagements occured throuout the year
War was formally declared in early spring 1756 WAR IS DECLARED British Strategy The British commander was Gen. Edward Braddock
The British decided to employ an offensive strategy
Attack into New France and capture French forts, weakening the French control of the region
Combined force of British regulars and colonial militia
Largest and strongest navy in the world
Blockade French ports and harass French shipping The French strategy was defensive
Simply defend their massive territory with help from the Native American allies
As long as they hold their forts, the British cannot control the territory
Not afraid to stand toe-to-toe with British navy
Rely on French Canadian militia/Native Americans early in the war FRENCH STRATEGY BRADDOCK EXPEDITION The summer of 1755 marked the start of a large British Offensive to attack and capture French forts on the frontier
Braddock personally led 2100 troops (1400 British+700 colonists) to march on Ft. Duquesne
Washington served as a volunteer aid
Cut through thick forests on the way in order to build a road for the artillery
Progress was painstakingly slow
Ft. Duquesne was defended by 250 Fr. Canadians and 640 NA (Council of 3 Fires)
British were occasionally ambushed on the march, but nothing too damaging Battle of the Monongahela-July 9, 1755 -French commander, Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu, decided to launch a preemptive strike on the approaching British forces
-Beaujeu was killed in the opening shots as British soldiers fired on the French/NA advancing through the trees
-NA and French pressed the attack on British advance guard and forced them to withdraw
-The advance guard ran into other British rushing into the battle, and the French/NA were able to surround them and fire from the trees
-British units disintegrated in the confusion, occasionally firing on each other
-Most colonial units fled -Braddock, despite 5 horses being shot from under him, managed to rally his men and reorganize them after about an hour
-The British fought hard for 2 more hours in mixed units by exchanging musket fire with French/NA in the trees and using hand-to-hand combat to push the enemy back when they got close
-Braddock was then shot in the lung and killed
-British started to retreat under order
-Ambushed by NA while crossing the Monongahela Rv.
-NA used hatchets and scalping knives
-Brits thought they were going to be massacred so they broke rank and fled
-Wash. organized a unit of Virginians to move to the river and cover the retreat
-One of the worst defeats in British military history, ended the British offensive that summer
-87 French/NA casualties.....950 British/colonial casualties British Struggles -From 1755-1757 the British failed to find any success in the New World
-The French successfully defended all of their forts, the British blockade was ineffective, and the British military was continually plagued by poor commanders
-Lowpoint occurred in August, 1757 when the British lost Ft. William Henry Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Commander of all the French forces in N. Amer
Was a very able commander
Defended against British attacks at Ft. Carillon with only 4000 men
Captured Fts. Oswego and William Henry
Attempted to stop the massacre at Will. Henry
Received fewer resources from the French govt as the war dragged on THE WAR EXPANDS Fighting broke out in Europe in May, 1756
Major European powers cast their lot with either the French or British
Fighting would last until 1763, and over 1,400,000 people would die BRITAIN'S RESOLVE -Britain was still willing to fight despite their early setbacks in N. Amer
-PM William Pitt took over management of the war in N. Amer
-Added more ships to the blockade and it became effective at cutting off French supplies by early 1758
-Pitt also ordered over 10,000 British troops to reinforce the N. Amer theater
-Put General James Wolfe in command of the British forces
-Ft. Duquesne was captured in Sept, 1758...renamed Ft. Pitt (Pittsburgh) Invasion of Canada -British success in 1758 led to the ability to invade Canada in 1759
-Quebec was heavily fortified and located on cliffs, making a direct attack impossible
-Wolfe decided to land his troops upriver from Quebec so they could just march down to the city
-The French had unsuccessfully tried to blocakde the river
-This forced Montcalm to move out and meet Wolfe Battle of the Plains of Abraham -French and British forces met on the open plains north of Quebec
-French forces were made up mostly of poorly trained regular troops who were more used to fighting in the forests
-All the British troops were well trained in European style warfare
-The British were more effective at staying organized and firing their volleys
-This rattled the French troops, who broke and ran -The French managed to form a battle line under Montcalm's direction and fired into the charging British
-Gen. Wolfe was shot in the stomach and chest
-Brits rallied around their wounded commander and fired withering volleys into the French troops
-Montcalm was hit by a shell fragment and killed
-British climbed the cliffs behind the city and and flanked the French
-The French then fled from the battlefield
-Wolfe died soon after he realized the French had retreated
-Each side lost just over 650 men, but the British finally captured Quebec END OF THE WAR -Fall of Quebec and death of Montcalm effectively ended the war for the French
-Montreal fell in 1760 and the fighting ended in N. Amer with the Treaty of Paris

-British offered several surrender terms to the French in N. Amer:

1.French Canadians who chose to stay in N. Amer could continue to worship as Catholics
2. French Canadians could keep their property and were not to be disturbed by the British military
3. French soldiers were given medical treatment by the British
4. French soldiers were returned to Europe on British ships and promised not to fight in the war again Results of the War Treaties of Paris and Hubertusberg were signed in 1763 and ended the French+Indian War/7 Years War
All of New France became British land, but France kept Caribbean settlements
Some French Canadians stayed, others went back to France or other French territories
Both sides felt they had received a good deal
NA lost the most
No counter to British power or expansion w/ the French gone
Britain and France fell into severe debt (Britains more than doubled b/c of the 7 Years War
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