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Pre-Revolutionary America

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 9 January 2019

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Transcript of Pre-Revolutionary America

French+Indian War

Tension with Britain
-France had also colonized North America during the mid
-Very few French actually settled in the New World
-Only 2 major settlements (Quebec and Montreal) were founded in New France
-The population of New France was only 4000 in 1650
-Louisiana was even more sparsely populated
New France
-The economy of New France changed over the decades
-First was based on fishing, but changed to furs as the French moved further inland
-Fur was initially gained by trading with Native Americans
-Furs were used in clothing back in Europe
-Fur from N. American animals was in huge demand by early 1700's
-The fur trade became the main staple of the New France economy
-This brought traders and trappers to New France, but no families or permanent settlers
-The fur trappers were usually young, single men
-Interacted a lot with local Native Americans
-Taught survival techniques, traded/worked with them, and many French trappers took Native American wives
-Created good relationship between France and Native Americans
-Did not give settlers a reason to come to the New World
Another group of French settlers were the Jesuit missionaries
Attempted to spread Catholicism to the Native Americans
Got along well with most tribes, but were constantly attacked/killed by the Iroquois
The fur trade was successful, but New France still had very few settlers
No major cities other than Montreal and Quebec
most of New France was dotted with small forts, missions, and trading posts
the Native Americans liked this
French and British Relations
-France and Britain were the two most powerful nations in the world by mid 1700's
-Were constantly competing for control of the world
-Had a lot of bad blood between each other as well
-Fought the Hundred Years War in medieval times
-Engaged in 6 wars with each other between 1660-1750
The British
The French
-Pop. of 75,000
-No army, 3000 colonial
-Good relations w/(most)NA
-Large amount of claimed
land, but concentrated pop.
-Many frontier forts
-Economy based primarily
on fur trade, not diversified
-Pop. of 1.6 million
-2000 British soldiers stationed in the colonies
-Many colonial militias
-Poor relations w/NA
-Diverse economy
-Growing colonies made claims into areas of New France
NA dominated the large unsettled areas of New France
Tribes around the Great Lakes supported the French and were recruited as fighters
Cherokee and Iroquois supported the British
Pop. of the British colonies continued to climb
British trappers and traders began operating in New France, specifically the Ohio River Valley
Settlers in western Virg. and Penn. began laying claim to unsettled land in New France
This upset the govt. of France+their Native American allies
Celoron Expedition
-Set out on June 15, 1749 from Montreal
-Expedition consisted of 215 French Canadians and 55 NA
-Covered 3000 miles by canoe and foot from June-November
-Nailed copper+lead plates to trees at the critical river junctures along the way to enforce the French claim
-Evicted British traders and trappers as he encountered them, but these British mostly ignored him
-Also threatened the NA caught trading with the British, particularly a Miami chief named Old Briton.
-This offended some Iroquois in the expedition who returned home and stole the French plates along the way
1. The British began negotiating w/ NA in the Ohio Valley in 1749
2. Virg. and Penn. encourage settlers
3. On June 21, 1752 NA allied with the French attacked the Miami NA village of Pickawillay
4. The French spend the spring of 1753 constucting forts and capturing British traders in the ORV
-Gov. of Virginia wanted to push his colony's claim of the ORV
-October, 1753 sent expedition to press Virginia's rights in the territory
-Virginia militia was led by 21 year old Major George Washington
-Met with commanders of several French forts
-Every one of them resolved not to give up the French claim to the territory
Shots Fired

Washington and his militia were ordered to reinforce a small group of British men constructing a fort
Wash. and his men discovered that 500 French troops had got there first and built Ft. Duquesne
Wash's troops surprised the French and attacked the fort on May 28, 1754
Killed many French but failed to capture Ft. Duquesne

-Wash and his few militiamen fell back and built Ft. Necessity to wait for a French counterattack
-Was reinforced by 100 British troops and 270 colonial militiamen
-Attacked by 600 French Canadians+NA on July 3, 1754
-No guarantee of Brit. reinforcements, so Wash was forced to surrender
-These opening battles resulted in 65 French+105 British casualties
News of the fighting reached Europe in August
France and Britian resoponded by sending military forces to the New World in early 1755
The British navy also began to attack French ships=merchant+naval
The small naval engagements occured throuout the year
War was formally declared in early spring 1756
British Strategy
The British commander was Gen. Edward Braddock
The British decided to employ an offensive strategy
Attack into New France and capture French forts, weakening the French control of the region
Combined force of British regulars and colonial militia
Largest and strongest navy in the world
Blockade French ports and harass French shipping
The French strategy was defensive
Simply defend their massive territory with help from the Native American allies
As long as they hold their forts, the British cannot control the territory
Not afraid to stand toe-to-toe with British navy
Rely on French Canadian militia/Native Americans early in the war
The summer of 1755 marked the start of a large British Offensive to attack and capture French
The British army was soundly defeated by French+Native American forces at the Battle of Monongahela
One of the worst defeats in British military history and ended the British offensive
87 French/NA casualties.....950 British/colonial casualties
Britain would struggle in the war for the next 2 years
Battle of the Monongahela-July 9, 1755
-French commander, Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu, decided to launch a preemptive strike on the approaching British forces
-Beaujeu was killed in the opening shots as British soldiers fired on the French/NA advancing through the trees
-NA and French pressed the attack on British advance guard and forced them to withdraw
-The advance guard ran into other British rushing into the battle, and the French/NA were able to surround them and fire from the trees
-British units disintegrated in the confusion, occasionally firing on each other
-Most colonial units fled
-Braddock, despite 5 horses being shot from under him, managed to rally his men and reorganize them after about an hour
-The British fought hard for 2 more hours in mixed units by exchanging musket fire with French/NA in the trees and using hand-to-hand combat to push the enemy back when they got close
-Braddock was then shot in the lung and killed
-British started to retreat under order
-Ambushed by NA while crossing the Monongahela Rv.
-NA used hatchets and scalping knives
-Brits thought they were going to be massacred so they broke rank and fled
-Wash. organized a unit of Virginians to move to the river and cover the retreat
-One of the worst defeats in British military history, ended the British offensive that summer
-87 French/NA casualties.....950 British/colonial casualties
-From 1755-1757 the British failed to find any success in the New World

-The French successfully defended all of their forts, the British blockade was ineffective, and the British military was continually plagued by poor commanders

-Lowpoint occurred in August, 1757 when the British lost Ft. William Henry and 200 troops were massacred by Native Americans
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
Commander of all the French forces in N. Amer
Was a very able commander
Defended against British attacks at Ft. Carillon with only 4000 men
Captured Fts. Oswego and William Henry
Attempted to stop the massacre at Will. Henry
Received fewer resources from the French govt as the war dragged on
Fighting broke out in Europe in May, 1756
Major European powers cast their lot with either the French or British
Fighting would last until 1763, and over 1,400,000 people would die
Regarded as the first true world war
-Britain was still willing to fight despite their early setbacks in N. Amer

-PM William Pitt took over management of the war

-the British blockade became effective at cutting off French supplies by early 1758

-10,000 British troops to reinforce the N. Amer theater

-Ft. Duquesne was captured in Sept, 1758...renamed Ft. Pitt (Pittsburgh)
Invasion of Canada
-British success in 1758 led them to invade Canada in 1759

-the British goal was to capture Quebec

-French forces decided to meet them in open battle outside the city
Battle of the Plains of Abraham
-French and British forces met on the open plains north of Quebec
-French forces were made up of men who were more used to fighting in the forests
-All the British troops were well trained in European style warfare
-The British were more effective at staying organized and firing their volleys
-French troops panicked, broke, and ran
-Both sides lost 650 men, but the British achieved victory
-the loss of Quebec ended the war for France
-The French managed to form a battle line under Montcalm's direction and fired into the charging British
-Gen. Wolfe was shot in the stomach and chest
-Brits rallied around their wounded commander and fired withering volleys into the French troops
-Montcalm was hit by a shell fragment and killed
-British climbed the cliffs behind the city and and flanked the French
-The French then fled from the battlefield
-Wolfe died soon after he realized the French had retreated
-Each side lost just over 650 men, but the British finally captured Quebec
-Fall of Quebec and effectively ended the war for the French

-Montreal fell in 1760 and the fighting ended in N. Amer with the Treaty of Paris
Results of the War
Treaties ended the war in 1763
New France became British land, but France kept Caribbean settlements
Both sides felt they had received a good deal
Native Americans were the biggest losers
Had no way to resist the British power or expansion w/ the French gone
Britain and France fell into severe debt (Britain's more than doubled b/c of the 7 Years War
-residents of the 13 colonies were excited by the defeat of France

-they now had the opportunity to settle in lands west of the Appalachian Mts....but there was a problem

-Britain had only achieved victory due to the military aid of several Native tribes west of the Appalachians

-colonial settlers would destroy the Natives if they moved west

-Natives demanded the British honor the alliance
-King George III issued the Proclamation in October, 1763

-a line was drawn along the Appalachian Mts, and no colonial settlers were able to move west of that line

-colonists were angered by the Proclamation

-they had fought alongside British forces to gain access to French lands

-colonists felt that the British govt was choosing the Natives over them

-the British meekly enforced the Proclamation Line

-despite the law, thousands of colonists easily crossed the Appalachians

-this angered the Native Americans

-Natives responded by launching their own war
-as early as 1760, an Ottawa chief named Pontiac had been trying to rally Native tribes against the British

-the failure of the British govt+military to enforce the Proclamation line encouraged more tribes to unite under Pontiac's leadership

-by 1763, Pontiac had convinced 14 tribes (Great Lakes/Midwest) and 3500 warriors to join his cause
-the war began when the Native forces attacked Ft. Detroit

-Native forces attacked forts and settlements all across the Midwest

-the war escalated as British, colonial militia, and Native forces adopted ruthless and merciless tactics...targeting civilians, torture, mutilation, biological warfare
-three years of conflict were finally ended when Pontiac signed a peace treaty in 1766

-losses are hard to pin down...
Native warriors-1500
Native civilians-3000 in war...1,400,000 due to disease

British soldiers/Militia-450
Colonial civilians-2000
-the conflict was a military stalemate

-the British government came to the conclusion that colonists and Native Americans must be kept apart

-the British would more strictly enforce the Proclamation Line with the building of more forts and sending over an additional 4000 troops

-this further drove apart Natives, colonists, and the British govt
-the 7 Years War had caused Britain's national debt to hit (in today's money) $4.6 billion

-Parliament made the decision in 1765 to start directly taxing the colonies

-previously, the colonies never paid direct taxes to the British govt...only tariffs
-Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765

-all official documents, newspapers, almanacs, and pamphlets—even decks of playing cards, were taxed

-the taxes were relatively low

-colonists protested taxes on the ground that they had no representation in Parliament
-Benjamin Franklin went to London to protest in 1766

-Franklin argues that colonists already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire

-the colonies had raised, outfitted, and paid 25,000 soldiers to fight France—as many as Britain had sent

-the colonial govts had also spent millions of dollars on the war too
-Parliament saw itself as the supreme lawmaking authority throughout all British territory...they tax without colonial approval

-the colonies were legally British corporations, and had followed laws imposed by the Parliament before

-they had taxed colonial trade for decades

-the colonies effectively enjoyed a "virtual representation" as most British people did, only a small minority of the British population elected people to Parliament
-secret society was formed in Boston in 1765 to protect the rights of the colonists and to fight taxation

-the organization quickly spread to New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, and Maryland

-they used public demonstrations, boycott, violence, and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable

-notable members included Sam Adams, Paul Revere, Benedict Arnold, Patrick Henry, James Otis, and John Hancock

-the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766
-in 1767, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts which placed duties on a number of essential goods, including paper, glass, and tea

-while met with hostility, it was harder for colonists to boycott these more essential goods

-responded with more hostility and violence toward tax collectors

-the violence prompted the British govt to send troops to occupy+control Boston
-the presence of British troops in Boston further aggravated the colonists

-tension came to a breaking point on March 5, 1770

-a terse exchange between Pvt. Hugh White and a young apprentice named Edward Garrick spiraled out of control

-the end result would be 5 dead colonists, and became an important piece of propaganda for the Sons of Liberty
Committees of Correspondence
-in 1772 Samuel Adams set about creating the Committees of Correspondence

-the Committee linked Patriots in all 13 colonies and eventually provided the framework for a rebel government

-about 7500 people were members of the Committee

-the majority of them were prominent local political+community leaders
-the Committee organized colonial-wide boycotts and protests of the Townshend Acts

-a new Prime Minister, Lord Frederick North, decided to remove all of the taxes of the Townshend Acts...except the one on tea

-this temporarily diffused the crisis in the colonies

-most people on both sides of the Atlantic expected the everything to return to normal...only radicals like Sam Adams continued to agitate but they were largely ignored
-the Townshend Acts were all repealed by Lord North...except the one on tea

-colonies got the around the tea tax by illegally smuggling

-this caused the British East India Co. (largest trade company in Britain) to lose money

-the British sent in naval ships to stop the smuggling and sell the East India Co tea by force

-the teas was docked in Boston harbor, where longshoremen refused to unload it
-on December 16, 1773, a group of men, led by Samuel Adams dressed to evoke the appearance of Native Americans

- boarded the ships of the British East India Company and dumped over $700,000 worth of tea into the harbor

-the British government responded by passing several Acts that were intended to crack down on the colonists behavior
-there were 4 parts of the so-called "Intolerable Acts"

1. Massachusetts colonial charter was altered to limit their government+town meetings were restricted

2. All British soldiers to be put on trial would be sent back to Britain...not the colonies

3. Boston Harbor would be closed until the tea lost during the Tea Party was paid for

4. British troops could be housed in the homes of citizens without requiring permission of the owner
-Patriot militias began training outside of Boston

-in September 1774, the First Continental Congress convened

-the CC consisted of representatives from each of the colonies

-the CC would serve as a pseudo-government for deliberation and collective action throughout the colonies

-on December 1, the CC issued a call for a boycott of ALL British goods
-in February 1775, Parliament declared the colony of Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion

-Gen. Thomas Gage was in command of 4000 British troops in Boston

-the British knew that colonial militias were drilling and arming themselves in the countryside

-on the night of April 18, General Gage sent 700 men to seize weapons+ammo stored by the colonial militia at Concord, Massachusetts

-British troops entered Lexington on the morning of April 19, and found 77 Minutemen formed up on the village green
Battles of Lexington+Concord
-British officers told the Minutemen to disperse

-after nearly a 10 minute standoff, a shot was fired from an unknown source

-both sides exchanged brief volleys

-the British then charged and scattered the Minutemen

-8 Minutemen were killed, 10 wounded...1 British soldier was wounded
-the British continued on to Concord and searched for the weapons once arriving in the town

-by that time, Minutemen from around the entire region had begun arming themselves

-the British failed to find many supplies/weapons

-began to depart Concord by the late morning

-the British were ambushed by a force of Minutemen while crossing the small Concord Bridge, but drove them off
-the British then began their march back to Boston

-along the way the British were ambushed by nearly 2000 Minutemen along the way

-the British took heavy casualties from the guerrilla fighting Minutemen

-the British called for reinforcements and 1700 more troops came out to help them make it back to Boston

-they arrived in the early evening...British suffered 300 casualties/Minutemen lost 93
-on April 19, the militia from surrounding Massachusetts communities blocked land access to Boston and trapped the British in the city

-by early May, militiamen from across New England arrived outside Boston and the colonial force soon numbered 15,000 men

-the Cont. Congress dubbed this massive militia force as the Continental Army and elected George Washington to be its commanding officer

-the British had 6000 troops in the city
-the British decided to break out of Boston by pushing the Americans out of the Charlestown Peninsula

-the British navy bombarded the city of Charlestown to ruins and landed 3000 troops on the Peninsula

-1200 American troops had already seized the highground at Bunker+Breed's Hills

-the British had to take Breed's Hill before moving onto the primary objective of Bunker Hill

-the British began their assault on Breed's Hill around 3 PM

-their uphill assault was blown apart by the entrenched Americans

-the British tried a second time, but the result was the same

-the British assaulted a third time, and most of the Americans had run out of ammo

-the British stormed the American defenses and drove them back after hand-to-hand combat

-the British were in control of the Charlestown Peninsula by 5 PM

-in a pyrrhic victory, the British took 1054 casualties to the Americans 450
-the battle had shown that inexperienced militia were able to stand up to regular army troops in battle

-the British would adopt more cautious planning in future campaigns...which actually ended up helping the Americans

-Britain also decided to hire mercenaries

-British troops were still trapped in the city despite the victory at Bunker+Breed's Hill

-in November 1775, Vermont militiamen captured Ft. Ticonderoga in northern Vermont and seized dozens of heavy cannons

-in January, Henry Knox transported the cannons down to Boston and positioned them on the hills surrounding the city

-this effectively cut-off the British supply ships

-the British and Loyalists citizens abandoned the city on March 17, 1776
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