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Leah Holden

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of Norway

Geography The Kingdom of Norway By: Leah Holden Norway includes: Jan Mayen Jan Mayen is a volcanic island located in the Greenland sea. Jan Mayen was formed by the Jan Mayen hotspot, and is 373 km sq. Norway is on the western side of the Scandinavian peninsula. The Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard Viking Norway 19th Century Middle Ages 9th century In the 9th century, Norwegian Vikings raided Scotland, England, Ireland, France and Spain. HISTORY 880 - Harald Fairhair gained control of the western coast 900-935 - Eric Bloodaxe ruled over the western coast 935-960 - Haakon attempted to convert Norway to christianity 995-1,000 - Olaf converted the coastal area of Norway to Christianity 1015-1030 - Olaf Haraldson converted the people of the inland to Christianity 1,500-1,800 1030 - Magnus Olafson is elected king of Norway 1047 - Harald Hardrada becomes king In the 9th century Norway was divided into several kingdoms. Norway took longer than the other Scandinavian states to become a united country. Harald Hardrada's family ruled from 1047 to 1130. Sigurd the Crusader died, and Norway suffered a long series of civil wars. 1217 - 1263 - Haakon IV becomes king.
Haakon helps maintain peace and stability and achieve greatness. 1266 - Magnus, Haakon IV's son becomes king.
During his reign, Magnus reaslised that he could not defend the Hebrides against attack from Scotland. Magnus sold the Hebrides and the Isle of Man to the Scottish King. 1319 - 1355 - Norway was united with Sweden, and
King Erik of Norway was elected king of Sweden. 1349-1350 - The black death struck Norway, killing about half of the population. 1300 - Norway was joined with Denmark and Sweden. Margaret I was queen of both Denmark and Sweden at that time. 1397 - Queen Margaret's nephew was elected king of all three kingdom's at Kalmar. 1523 - Sweden broke away from the kingdom 1814 - The Kingdom's of Denmark and Norway broke apart 995 - Olav Tryggvesson made himself king of Norway 1530 - the Reformation reached Norway. The Norwegians followed the Danes by accepting Lutheran doctrines. 1500-1700 - trade and commerce grew 1624 - Oslo was destroyed by a fire. The Danish king Christian rebuilt it and renamed it after himself, Christiania Infant mortality, defined as the number of persons who die below one year of age per 1 000 live births in the same period, reached a new low in Norway in 2011; 2.4. Over the last three years, infant mortality has been 2.9, and is now much lower than in 1976, when it was in excess of 10 per 1 000 live births. Infant mortality is usually lower for girls than boys. In 2011, it was 3.0 for boys and 1.7 for girls.

Few infants die in the Nordic region
In Norway, infant mortality is not particularly low compared to the other Nordic countries, where it is among the lowest in the world. In 2010, infant mortality in Norway was 2.8, in Iceland 2.2, Finland 2.3 and Sweden 2.5. Other countries with low mortality are Japan with 2.3 and France with 3.6. In 1813, Swedish forces invaded Denmark, and in January of 1814 Denmark was forced to surrender Norway to Sweden. Led by Crown Prince Christian Frederick, the Norwegians rebelled. On May 17, 1814 Prince Christian drew up a constitution. Shortly after, he was elected king. In July of 1814 the Swedes invaded Norway. Christian stepped down and the Swedish and the Norwegians accepted the Swedish king. Although Norway had a new king, the people were given a considerable amount of autonomy. 1816 - the Bank of Norway was founded 1821 - Norwegian nobility was abolished 1815 - Norway suffered economic hardships because the British timber market was lost to Canada From the 1840s onwards, agriculture and Norway's timber industry flourished. The Norwegian merchant fleet grew rapidly and by the end of the century it was the third largest in the world. It is 5°E to 31°E and 58°N to more than 71°N The country is divided into 19 different provinces: Askershus, Hordland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogh og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms Vest-agder and Vestfold. Summer (June - August) Norway's summer is from late June to early August. Temperatures can reach from 80 to 90 degrees F, and there is hardly any humidity in the air. The warmest weather though, is along the south coast between Mandal and Oslo. Central, Northern and Fjord Norway's summers can be very wet. Summer days are long and bright, and above the Arctic Circle you can see the midnight sun. The highest recorded temperature was measured 98.08 °F on June 20th, 1970 at Nesbyen (Buskerud). Norway has high mountains, fjords and high annual precipitation. It is milder than other countries so far north, due to the North Atlantic Current. Population Patterns Bunads were invented in the 18th century. They are traditional rural costumes as well as 20th and 21st century folk costumes. It is common to wear bunad at various celebrations such as: folk dances, weddings, and especially the May 17 National Day celebrations. Different family groups add different details and colours to their bunads.The designs are typically elaborate, with embroidery, scarves, shawls and hand-made silver or gold jewelry known as sølje. Bunads The Norwegian Bible Society was established in 1816 and is the oldest inter-church organization in Norway. Haakon the Good of Norway who had grown up in England tried to introduce Christianity in the mid-10th century, but had met resistance from pagan leaders and soon abandoned the idea.

Anglo-Saxon missionaries from England and Germany had tried to convert Norwegians to Christianity but only had limited success. However, they succeeded in converting Olaf I of Norway to Christianity. Olaf II of Norway (later Saint Olaf) had more success in his attempts to convert the population with many Norwegians converting in the process, and he is credited with Christianizing Norway. In 1152 the Church of Norway was established in Nidaios (modern day Trondheim). Norway's culinary traditions have been influenced by seafaring and farming traditions. Traditional Norwegian food includes salmon (fresh and cured), herring (pickled or marinated), trout, cod, cheese, and dairy products. Lefse is a common Norwegian potato flatbread, eaten around Christmas. A favorite Christmas tradition of young Norwegian men is to wrap a beautiful, delicate and or valuable ornament or piece of jewelry in multiple layers of brown paper. Written on each layer is a message or motto. Norwegian folk music has been passed down by each generation for hundreds of years. The music includes vocal and instrumental pieces that are often performed by soloists.
The traditional instrument for instrumental folk music in Norway is the Hardingfele (Hardanger fiddle), followed by the harp. The Hardanger fiddle is often called the national instrument of Norway. The official language of Norway is Norwegian. Other languages include Sami and Finnish. Men and women consider themselves equal, and share the same amount of responsibility when it comes to raising their children. In 2009 the average salary was 35,200 kr/month ($6213.04). The highest 10% had an average of 68,500 kr/month, and the lowest 10% had an average of 19 900 kr/month.

Main industries:

Petroleum and natural gas, food processing, shipbuilding, wood pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, and fishing. Literacy Rate: 99% It is famous for its fjord-indented coastline and its mountains, ski resorts, lakes and woods. The main tourist cities in Norway are Oslo, Bergen, Stavanger, Trondheim and Tromsø. Much of the nature of Norway remains unspoiled, and attracts numerous hikers and skiers. The fjords, mountains and waterfalls in Western and North Norway attract several hundred thousand foreign tourists each year. Fall (September - November) During the fall, the land areas lose more heat than the sea, making the coastal areas have the highest temperatures. Olsofjord has the highest mean temperatures. Later in the fall, the highest temperatures can be found in Rogaland and Hordaland.
Trees change colour in the fall. The fall is good for picking berries and mushrooms. Winter (December - February) In winter much of Norway is usually covered with snow.
The mean temperature in the winter months are above freezing along the coast from Vest-Agder to Nordland. However, rain can be quite frequent and heavy.
Both the southern and northern part of Norway have very low mean temperatures in winter, where temperatures can reach below -40 °F. The coldest area is the Finnmark Plateau.
The highest temperature ever recorded in February was 66.02 °F in Sunndalsøra, Møre og Romsdal. The lowest temperature ever recorded in a Norwegian winter was -60.16 °F on January 1st, 1886 at Karasjok on the Finnmark Plateau. Spring (March - May) In the spring, the sun melts the snow cover and the land areas are being warmed up faster than the sea. Flowers bloom and the mountains begin to melt, filling up waterfalls. Near the coast of Western Norway are the highest mean temperatures, about 60 °F.
Spring is the season when the temperature difference between the southern and northern part of the country are the largest. Also, daytime and night-time temperatures differ the most in the spring. The Norwegian-born Viking Olav Tryggvason was baptized in London, in 994 C.E. Soon afterward, King Olav brought Chrisitanity to his homeland. In 1814, the Evangelical Lutheran religion was named the official religion of Norway. Christianity in Norway Culture/Family Life Customs and Traditions The traditional way for naming Norwegian children is referred to as "patronymics". The child is given a first name and a patronymic name, which is made up of the father's first name and "sen" (son) or "datter" (daughter). For example, if a man named Ole has a son and names him Hendrick, he becomes Hendrick Olesen. If Hendrick has a daughter and names her Guri, then her full name would be Guri Hendricksdatter. Religion Church of Norway 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1% Language Role of Men and Women Women are highly respected, receive equal pay and have access to senior positions. Women may take up to one year's maternity leave at 80% pay or 10 months 100% pay. An important aspect of Norwegian culture is humility. The poet Aksel Sandemose put the Jante Law into words to portray Norwegian culture. Norwegians view themselves as egalitarian people whose culture is based on principles of respect and interdependence. They like people for who they are and not what there status might be, they have simple taste and are honest and sincere. The average Norwegian household holds 3 people. In a labor force of more than two million workers, approximately 72% are in services, 23% work in industry, and 5% work in agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Housing Traditionally houses are built with poky, little rooms, to keep in the warmth, and steep roofs to help the snow slide off. Windows are small (as glass lets out the heat) and there is always a fire place or wood oven in the centre of the house to warm up the rooms during the cold winters. It is typical for a house to be painted a strange colour e.g. red, blue, yellow. Health Care and Statistics The live birth rate in 2011 was 60,220 out of a population of 4,973,000. Norway is one of the healthiest countries with a life expectancy of 80 years. More boys than girls are born each year - approximately 105 boys per 100 girls. Education Norway has a literacy rate of 99%. The Norwegian currency is the Kroner. One American dollar is 5.70732 NOK. 844 of 1,000 people use cell phones. 502.6 of 1,000 people use the internet. Current Events:
Norway’s Princess Ragnhild, Mrs. Lorentzen passed away on Monday, September 17 in her home in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. She died at the age of 82 and was King Harald’s (the current king’s) eldest sister. Tourist Attractions: Preikestolen also known as the Preacher's Pulpit is a massive cliff that is 1982 feet above the Kjerag plateau in Forsand, Ryfylke, Norway. Around 200,000 people hike to Preikestolen each year. Early Norwegians were Norse pagans. The conversion of Norway to Christianity began after the raids on the British Isles and the Frankish kingdoms, which had allowed the Vikings to become in touch with Christianity. The first translation of the Bible into Norwegian wasn't available until 1904. Tourist Advisories: http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/europe/norway Climate Imports Norway is a major exporter of oil and petroleum products, and also supplies its trading partners with machinery, equipment, metals, chemicals and fish.

Norway imports from Sweden (15% of total imports), Germany (13.5%), Denmark (6.9%), the U.K. (6.4%), China (5.7%), the U.S. (5.3%) and Netherlands (4.1%). Exports Norway’s top trading partners for its exports are the United Kingdom (26.8% of total exports), Germany (12.3%), Netherlands (10.3%), France (8.2%), Sweden (6.4%) and the United States (5.7%). Physical Map The Northern Lights Norway borders with Finland Russia and Sweden. The country extends over 1,100 miles from north to south and varies in width from 4 to 270 miles. A third of the country lies north of the Arctic circle. Norway's total area is 125,181 square miles. Cited: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/norway-country-profile.html







https://www.google.com/#hl=en&biw=1280&bih=902&sclient=psy-ab&q=tourist+attractions+norway+&oq=tourist+attractions+norway+&gs_l=serp.3..0i30l3j0i5i30.18808.47606.0.47837.,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&fp=7024e812c212ae0f&bpcl=35243188 Cliff Diving 700 - 709 Barcode Prefix http://www.cyberclip.com/Katrine/NorwayInfo/Articles/HistNorw.html In Norway, all public hospitals are funded from the national budget and run by four Regional Health Authorities (RHA) owned by the Ministry of Health and Care Services. All citizens are eligible for treatment free of charge in the public hospital system, and all citizens have the right to Free Hospital Choices.

The Norwegian Health Care System was ranked number 11 in overall performance by the World Health Organization in a 2000 report ranking the health care of the 190 UN member nations.
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