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Relative Clauses & Poverty (Integrated Language Skills)

Presentation for Frau Becker's class "Integrated Language Skills" - Münster (2013)
by

Jon Snow

on 3 July 2013

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Transcript of Relative Clauses & Poverty (Integrated Language Skills)

Who
which
whose
whom
that
hat are Relative Clauses?
W
A relative clause is a subordinate clause
that
adds extra
information to a sentence

Non-defining relative clauses
Additional information
Taking the clause out of the sentence does not change the meaning of the sentence
E.g.
Martin Luther King,
who was known for his fight for the civil rights
, was assassinated in 1968.

Martin Luther King
who was known for his fight for the civil rights
was assassinated in 1968.


Martin Luther King was assassinated in 1968.


Separated by commas
They are more often used in written English
than in spoken English.
They can use most relative pronouns
but they cannot use ‘that’.


The relative pronoun can never be omitted.
by defining a noun.
By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.
R
elative Pronouns
who:
which:

whose:
whom:
that:
elative Adverbs
R
I told you about the woman
who
lives next door.
Do you see the cat
which
is lying on the roof?
He couldn’t read
which
really surprised me.

Do you know the boy
whose
mother is a nurse?
*
I was invited by the man
whom
I met at the party.

I don’t like the table
that
stands in the kitchen.

[S or O] Refers to people
[S or O] Refers to animals and things
Also referring to a whole
sentence
Possession for people
animals and things.
[O] Refers to people
[S or O] Refers to people,
animals or things in defining
relative clauses
When:
Where:
Why:
(in/on which)
The day
when
we met him
(in/at which)
The place
where
we met him
(for which)
The reason
why
we met him
Defining relative clauses
Detailed necessary information
Often used in definitions
E.g.
I know the man
who

is standing there
- The information is necessary to understand the meaning.
- Relative clause is not between commas
- Who can be replaced by "that"
- Relative pronoun acting as subject (=cannot be omitted)









They are not put between commas
Object pronouns can be omitted
- The meaning does not change.
- Cannot replace "who" for "that.
- The relative pronoun cannot be omitted.
- Must be separated by commas
The film (
which
) we watched yesterday was fantastic.

- Relative pronoun acting as object (=can be omitted)
ifferences between
er
m
an
and
n
g
l
i
sh
In which
vs
Where
hen can I omit the pronoun?
ho vs that
that vs which
- Die Äpfel, die ich gegessen habe, waren lecker.
Subject/Object:
W
If the relative pronoun* is followed by a noun (or pronoun), it functions as object.
Object pronouns
can
be omitted.
The car
(that)

we
saw yesterday was too expensive.


The car ( ) we saw yesterday was too expensive.
If the relative pronoun is
not
followed by a noun or pronoun, it functions as subject. Subject pronouns
cannot
be omitted.
The teacher
who

lives
next door is nice.


Hint:
You can replace a relative clause using a
participle construction
The boy
who
was waiting in the hall expected a phone call.
The boy
waiting
in the hall expected a phone call.
The information
given
in the newspaper is wrong.

The information
which
is given in the newspaper is wrong.

The train
which
is
now arriving at platform 1 goes to Newcastle
The train now
arriving
at platform 1 goes to Newcastle
or even using an adverb, noun or adjective
The lake,
which
is rapidly evaporating, may be in danger.
The
rapidly
evaporating lake may be in danger.

*Who, which, or that
- This is the store
at which
I met my girlfriend.
- This is the store
where
I met my girlfriend.
- More formal
- More precise
- Written English
We climbed to the top of the tower,
where
we had a beautiful view.
,
in which
we had a beautiful view.
,
from which

we had a beautiful view.
,
from where
we had a beautiful view
Is there any difference in
meaning between these sentences?
- Less formal
- More common in spoken English
When using "where" as relative pronoun, be aware of the following common error:



- This is the store ( ) I met my girlfriend
at.
Hint:
- He was born
somewhere
around 1970.
The year 1970 is a time, not a place, so you would have to say, “sometime” instead of “somewhere".
ood for thought
- Grammatically correct, yet many
people think it is not
F
We use
who
when talking about a person.
We use
that
when talking about an object.
* According to:
Burchfield, R.W., ed. The New Fowler's Modern English Usage.
Lynch, Jack. Guide to Grammar and Style
.
But not every grammar book agrees** and both uses are considered to be
grammatically correct; they are
interchangeable when it comes to
referring to people .
The rule*:
**According to: The American Heritage College Dictionary
Slight difference in meaning: Using
"that"
when talking
about a person may indicate animosity
W
Exercises
10-15 min

Everything's relative
This is
relatively
easy!
The rule*:
Use
that
before
defining
relative clauses
Use
which
before
non-defining
relative clauses
Do you know how often does a child
die as result of
extreme poverty
?
Some facts and statistics
A child dies
completely unnecessary
as a result of
extreme poverty

The poorest
40 percent
of
the world 's population accounts
for 5 percent of global income.
The richest 20 percent accounts for
three-quarters
of world income.
A quarter of all humans (approx. 1.6 billion people)
live
without electricity.
1.4 billion people in developing
countries live on


Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century
unable to read
a book or sign their names.
22,000 children
die each day due to conditions of poverty.
870 million people do not currently have
enough to eat
— more than the populations of USA and the European Union combined
My car
that
is blue goes very fast.
My car,
which
is blue, goes very fast.
*"Which" is also accepted in defining relative clauses but it may lead to mistakes, especially in spoken English.

Vampire bats
that
don’t drink blood often go hungry.






Going on a
Which
Hunt



Vampire bats,
which
don’t drink blood, often go hungry.
Some refuse/do not like blood.
There are other vampire bats that enjoy drinking blood.
Vampire bats do not drink blood.
E.g.
D
G
E
:
- In contrast to English, relative clauses in German are always
set off by commas.
- The apples
that
I have eaten were delicious.
- The apples,
which
I have eaten, were delicious.
- A shade of the meaning is lost in German:
(Same case as the vampire bats)
Let's imagine
poverty
iceberg
as an
What we see...
in our developed
countries...
It's just the

of the...
iceberg
tip
Let's have a look at what
lies under the
Surface
Poverty in non-developed countries
every 3 seconds
+
$1.25 a day or less.
Is there any way to solve these problems?
e
d
u
c
a
t
i
o
n
Investment in
"
Education
is the most powerful weapon
which you can use to change the world."

Nelson Mandela
What else can be done to
eradicate
poverty
?
Integrated Language Skills -
Joanna Becker
Münster 2013
Full transcript