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The Russian Empire (1450 - 1750)
Transcript of The Russian Empire (1450 - 1750)
R U S S I A
(1450 - 1750)
In the east, modern-day Siberia, fur, timber, gold, and iron were used for trade.
Instead of paid labor, extreme serfdom was used for labor.
Mainly a rural, agricultural economy, but the serfs had no motivation to work harder because the landowners got all profit.
Russia lacked a middle class (artisans and merchants).
Little industry and marketing.
Traded mostly furs.
Russia attempted to diversify their economy through mining and metallurgy
the money went to fund the military
To outfit the military, Peter created iron foundries and textile mills
Set systems of state control of the purchase of raw materials and establishment of factories
Russia expands west to Kiev and Novgorod.
- bands of people from the steppes; led conquest of Siberia.
Land was given to local nobles as rewards (from tsars).
Population doubles in 1700s to 36 million due to...
Westernization based on European society.
German influence on attire.
- agricultural laborer that set services for the landlord.
- Russian Aristocracy
Russians were very diverse as the empire expanded; Individuals consisted of farmers, hunters, builders, scribes, merchants, herders, caravan workers, and soldiers.
Peter the Great westernizes Russia by enforcing education and western dress, and also by setting a beard tax.
due to westernization, upper class women enjoyed more freedom, but peasants' lives remained the same
Orthodox Christianity is the dominant religion
New lands cause internal tensions due to a multicultural empire
No large urban centers
Peasants were legally serfs
Serfdom was an inescapable hereditary status
Use of tobacco made compulsory
: promotes centralized rule.
: Also known as Ivan the Terrible; he continues expansion and centralization of power and crowns himself as the first czar. Commanded the oprichnina that slaughtered those disloyal to the crown.
Peter the Great
Boyars were landowners who controlled serfs.
To support the military, he restructured the government into a bureaucratic state with its capital in the newly built city of St. Petersburg.
Creates a standing army along with a navy with a fleet of ships.
By the Table of Ranks, the government had merit-based employees because it was a system of promotion based on personal ability and performance rather than on birth and genealogy.
Strengthened power of the czar as an absolutist monarch.
- the political and religous leader (all church appointments made by the czar).
Catherine the Great
Overthrown her husband, Peter the Great, with the help of several others.
that stated how the country's legal system should be run; it pushed capital punishment and torture to be outlawed and declared every man to be equal.
from different social and economic classes. The first time Russians across the empire was able to express their opinions and concerns about their country.
Gave back the land and property that Peter III took from the Church, only to take it in the future.
Although she pushed for equality, later in her reign, she emphasized the upper-classes' power and forced many of her citizens into serfdom.
Expanded Russian's borders, and proved to the world that Russia was a mighty power.
Supported many cultural projects and called for free schools to be created in towns across Russia.
Bašić, Denis. Gunpowder Empires. N.p.: n.p., n.d. PPT.
"Chapter 20." N.p.: Cengage Learning, 2011. N. pag. Print.
Chapter Thirteen: Islamic Land-Based Empires. N.p.: n.p., n.d. PDF.
Dukes, Paul, The Making of Russian Absolutism, 1613-1801, Longman Press, New York, 1982
"Table of Ranks". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 09 Feb. 2015
Oliver, Meredith. "Peter I (The Great)." Peter the Great: 1689-1725. ThenAgain, 18 Dec. 1998. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.
Or. "Russian Empire (1500-1800)." Russian Empire (1500-1800) (n.d.): n. pag. Northern Highlands. Web. 18
Feb. 2015. <http://www.northernhighlands.org/cms/lib5/NJ01000179/Centricity/Domain/98/Lesson%2051%20How%20powerful%20was%20the%20Russian%20Empire%20between%201500-1800.pdf>.
Peter the Great. Discovery Education, n.d. YouTube. 11 Dec. 2008. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.
Witzenrath, Christoph. The Cossack Group. Cossacks and the Russian Empire, 1598–1725: Manipulation,
Rebellion and Expansion Into Siberia. Routledge: n.p., 2007. N. pag. Print.
Wrong, Dennis H., Ed., and William N. Deneven. "UNIT III: 1450 - 1750 C." History Haven. N.p., n.d. Web.
18 Feb. 2015.
Patriarchal- men were superior to women; women there for support
land grant system based on military service
hated anything related to western society
gave punishments to people who went against religious values
Limited variety of traded goods.
Imported western goods.
Limited variety of traded goods.
Traded extensively & over long distances (during the early Qing).
Agricultural economy but also made specialized goods.
Imported western goods.
powerful military force
bureaucracy of scholars
Qianlong continues expansion and encorages settling
professional calvary force with heavy armor along with a strong navy
the capitol at Burma was a commercial and intellectual center
most were Sunni muslim
great diversity of lands and many trade connections
important merchant class
no urgency to westernize
large and idle bureaucracy
military weakened at expense of scholar-gentry
viewed westerners as barbarians of infidels
imperial expansion seen as extension of Islam to new lands
Viewed Europeans as infidels
court life had many rituals
Had Christian servant soldiers who were basically slaves
Education and tradition was supported by the Qing emperor
prepared students for civil service exams
poetry novels, encyclopedias and libraries
calligraphy and artwork were much appreciated
painters and scholars (most were religious) worked under political leaders and considered high class
The Shi- Gentry scholars (warrior class evolved to scholarly class)
The Nong- Peasant farmers (produced food, sustained empire, contributed to state revenue with taxes
The Gong- Artisans and craftsmen (had skills, but no land and did not contribute to state revenue
The Shang- Merchants and traders (highly disrespected because they only transported food and were "motivated by greed")
more sustained trade
Instanbul is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world
Numerous trade route circuits
Much of tax revenue pocketed by Local government officials
Religious law limited government's ability to reform tax laws
Silk production and trade was a major indusrty
Chiefs of nomadic groups had little interest in building the agricultural economy
: Sara Scales, Melody Molinaro, Lina Chung, Eliana Marcu
Education took importance but known as a "private affair" (not a duty to teach, just to gain religious merit)
libraries with books of religion, poetry, etc.
discipline their forces of intellect and moral development
levels of classes in school
very difficult examinations in order to move to a higher level class
schools of painting (portraits and landscapes)
calligraphy like the mughals
art was influenced by the mughals
persian-hindu style poety
The Ottoman Empire consisted of four social classes;
Men of the pen: highly educated; scientists,lawyers, judges and doctors.
Men of the sword: military personnel.
Men of negotiation: merchants, artisans and tax collectors.
Men of husbandry: farmers and herders
Women had more freedom than the Ming
most common religious beliefs were Taoism and Buddhism
there wasn't a distinction between the classes