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To BE Indefinite (Present + Past)

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Olga Slutska

on 21 January 2016

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Transcript of To BE Indefinite (Present + Past)

The main grammar
To BE Indefinite (Present + Past)
To DO Indefinite (Present + Past)
To BE Continuous (Present + Past)
To have Present Perfect Indefinite
To have Present Perfect Continuous
To BE Indefinite Present
-- Используется:
1 Профессии: I am a student. He is not a teacher.
2 Родственники: She is my sister. Is he your brother?
3 Эмоции: Why is he so angry? He is not angry, he is just hungry.
4 Возраст: How old are you? I am 15 (years old).
5 Описания: My friend is very kind. My car is big and comfortable.
6 Время: What time is it? It is 3 p.m. now. You are late.
7 Место: Where are you? I am at home. Is he not at work now?
There are many cars on the roads today.
8 Национальность: Where are you from? I am from Russia. I am Russian.

To BE Indefinite Past
-- Используется:

1 Профессии: I was a student 5 years ago. He was my teacher.
2 Родственники: My grandfather was a doctor.
3 Эмоции: Why was he so angry? He was not angry, he was just hungry.
4 Возраст: When I was 15 years old, my family lived in Berlin.
5 Описания: That house was very big and new. The girl was tall and nice.
6 Время: What time was it? It was at 3 p.m. You were late.
7 Место: Where were you yesterday evening? I was at home.
There were many cars on the roads yesterday.
8 Национальность: Where are you from? I am from Russia. I am Russian.

To DO Indefinite Present

-- Используется:
1 Обычное повторяющееся действие: I usually go to work by car.
2 Законы и явления природы: The sun rises in the East.
3 Расписания поездов, самолетов, кино What time does the film start?
4 Истории, анекдоты, комментарии: She comes into the room and sees all the mess.
5 Ментальные глаголы: I know him very well.
6 Модальные глаголы: Can you help me?
7 Imperative: Do it! Don't do it! Stop doing it!

To DO Indefinite Past
-- Используется:

1 Одно действие в прошлом: The Titanic sank in 1912. I saw a new movie yesterday.
2 Повторяющееся действие в прошлом: I took Italian courses when I was a child.
3 Бывшая привычка: I used to go to the cinema a lot. (but now I don't)
4 Несколько действий подряд: He jumped up and rushed out from the room.

To BE Continuous Present
-- Используется:
1 Действие в момент речи: What are you doing? I am sitting at home and watching TV.
2 Действие around now: This week I am not working.
3 Изменяющаяся ситуация: It is getting cold. Is your English getting better?
4 Я собираюсь: I am going to phone to him tomorrow morning.
5 Запланировано: Next week I am flying to Berlin.
6 Преувеличение (негатив): You are always leaving your things all over the place!
7 Особые глаголы: to live, to work, to study, to look, to feel. You are looking nice today!

To BE Continuous Past

- Используется:

1 Действие длилось в точно указанный момент в прошлом.
-- What WERE you doing at 5 o'clock yesterday evening?
-- I WAS sitting at home and watching TV.
2 Действие длилось в рамках указанного периода в прошлом
— from 3 till 5 p.m.
— between 3 and 5 p.m.
— all day, the whole evening
-- What WERE you doing from 5 till 8 p.m. yesterday evening?
-- I WAS at home and I WAS reading a book all the evening.
3 Длительное действие, в которое "втыкается" короткое. When I was cooking dinner, I burnt my finger.
4 Два параллельных действия в прошлом. While I was cooking dinner, my husband was doing laundry.
5 При описании обстановки или атмосферы. The day was nice - the sun was shining, the birds were singing.
6 Преувеличение (негатив): The boy was constantly playing tricks on his poor mother.

To have The Present Perfect Indefinite -- Используется

1 Действие завершено, но момент времени ещё не истёк
I have done my homework TODAY. = Я сделал ДЗ. I have been to Paris THIS YEAR. = Я ездил в Париж в этом году.

2 Новости.
I have not done my HW. = Я не сделал ДЗ. Scientists have deciphered the complete genetic code of X mammoth.

3 Когда-либо в жизни.
Have you ever eaten caviar? - No, I haven't. = Вы когда-нибудь ели икру? - Нет.
Have you ever had a car? - У вас когда-нибудь была машина? Have you ever been to Berlin? Have you ever read anything by Agatha Christie?

4 Действие случилось неизвестно когда, но сейчас перед нами есть результат
Sarah has broken her leg and she can't walk now. = Сара сломала ногу и не может ходить.

5 Несколько раз в жизни
I have seen this movie 3 times. = Я видел этот фильм три раза. It is the first time I have driven a car. - Я в первый раз веду машину.

6 Условие завершения одного действия до появления другого
I will let you go to the cinema after you have finished your homework. - Я разрешу тебе пойти в кино только после того, как ты закончишь ДЗ.

7 Филиал Present Perfect Continuous для ментальных глаголов, to be и to have
I have known him for ages.= Я знаю его уже сто лет. I have been ill for a week. = Я болею уже неделю. I have had a car for 5 years.


8 Just, already & yet
I have JUST finish reading this book. - Я только что закончил чтение этой книги.
I have ALREADY read this book. - Я уже читал/ прочитал эту книгу.
Have you read this book YET? - Ты уже читал/ прочитал эту книгу? (Но: Have you ALREADY read this book? - НЕУЖЕЛИ ты УЖЕ прочитал эту книгу?)
I haven't finish reading this book YET. - Я ещё не закончил чтение этой книги.


to have The Present Perfect Continuous
Вариант 1
В ситуации присутствуют
два обязательных компонента
:
1 - какой-то длительный процесс, который (возможно) уже закончился, но нет упоминаний ни о его длительности, ни о его законченности
2 - последствия этого процесса в настоящем времени
Примеры:

1 You look tired. Have you been working hard? -- Ты выглядишь усталым. Ты много работал?
2 I am wet through! I have been running in the rain. -- Я весь промок! Я бежал под дождём.
3 Look, everything is white! It has been snowing. -- Смотри, всё белое! (Долго) шёл снег!

to have The Present Perfect Continuous
Вариант 2
В ситуации присутствуют
два обязательных компонента
:
1 - ДЛЯЩИЙСЯ в настоящее время процесс
2 - указания на длительность этого процесса
в виде начала (since morning)
в виде общей длительности (for four hours, all day)
Примеры:
1 I have been learning English for five years. -- Я учу английский уже 5 лет
2 I have been looking for you all morning. -- Я ищу тебя всё утро.
3 How long have you been learning English? -- Как давно ты уже учишь английский?
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