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Viktor Lowenfeld's 5 Stages of Artistic Development

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Emma Jushka

on 1 October 2016

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Transcript of Viktor Lowenfeld's 5 Stages of Artistic Development

Viktor Lowenfeld's 5 Stages of Artistic Development
2. Preschematic
(4-6 Years)
Development of stick people and animals
Communicate through symbols
Begin understanding schema
Space is not understood, color is used emotionally
3. Schematic
(7-9 years)
Shows knowledge of space and realistic color use
Use of horizon line
Exaggeration of subjects reflects artist's feelings
X-ray drawing - shows inside and outside, as if subject was cut open
5. Pseudorealistic
(11-13 years)
Further development of realism and attention to detail
Finished art becomes more important than process
Visual - artist views work logically and is interested in image at the end
Non-visual - artist view work emotionally and is interested in expressing feelings
Emma Jushka
What Are the 5 Stages?
Theory written by Dr. Viktor Lowenfeld in 1947 from "Creative and Mental Growth"
Spans ages 2 to 11 years
Progresses from scribbling to pseudorealism
Rate of development is influenced by external and internal factors
Socioeconomic status and gender do not become factors until later stages
1. Scribble
(2-4 years)
Four sub-stages: Disordered, Longitudinal, Circular, Naming
Disordered - uncontrolled mark making due to age and motor functions
Longitudinal - controlled, repetitive marks, enjoys feeling of drawing
Circular - ability to create more complex shapes
Naming - scribbles used to tell stories
Change from kinesthetics to imagination
Ability to communicate in pictures
4. Dawning Realism
(9-11 years)
Influenced by self-criticism and correct realism
Focus on details, distracted from image as a whole
Experimentation with perspective and subject size
Use of shading and combining colors
More time is taken to complete art
Random scribbles
Not interested in visual end
Focused on action of drawing
Develop more complex shapes
Consider "canvas" area
Still enjoy feeling of drawing over visual end
Representation of the self with basic features
More complex shapes and lines
Generalization of everyday object
Use of unrealistic color
Stick Figures
Use of Space
Incorporates ground or grass, but horizon is on a slope
Door or structure floats in the background
Long legs suggest the artist may have tried to ground the boys to bottom on page
Progressing to next stage of development
Focal point is largest subject in composition
Reflects child's interest in ice-cream or dolphins
Other items are smaller and show less interest to artist
Defining Space
Defined horizon, items sit on the plane
Presence of ground and sky
Subjects have realistic orientation
Attention to patterns in tile and table cloth; mimicking realistic details
Added patterns in table ware and water; attempting realistic details
Angled lines on the soccer goal suggest perspective, but net and frame stay two-dimensional
Shading on sea creatures shows beginning of depth experimentation with cross hatching
Understanding of perspective and shading
Use of real color and color shading
Subject matter exemplifies skills practiced in process
Continue to use color to show emotions
Interested in using fantasy as subject matter
Express personal ideas and feelings through art work
5 Stages In the Classroom
Understanding Lowenfeld's 5 Stages of Artistic Development can aid Art Educators in developing lesson plans geared towards the corresponding age group of a stage and promote growth into the next stage. Kindergarteners, who fall into the Preschematic Stage, will need to work on their understanding of orientation of objects in space, while thrid graders will have a strong understanding of the skill. At the same time lesson plans can be geared towards the strengths of each stage. Students in the Schematic Stage will benefit more from an abstract assignment that exercises the use of detail to define objects, than students in the Pseudorealism Stage because they already understand this concept.
Viktor Lowenfeld: "Creative and Mental Growth"
Born 1903 in Linz, Austria, Viktor Lowenfeld became the lead expert in Art Education with the publishing of his textbook "Creative and Mental Growth". The book became an important tool for Elementary level teachers because it organized child art into stages describing the purpose of each characteristic.
Lowenfeld graduated from the College of Applied Arts and Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, later he received his doctorate in education from the University of Vienna. Lowenfeld has published over one-hundred papers on the effects of art education and how to better understand its importance. In 1946 he became a professor at Pennsylvania State University where he was the head of the Art Education department until his death in 1960.
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