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Copy of Copy of Chapter 23: Collective Behavior and Social Movements
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Chapter 23: Collective Behavior and Social Movements
Collective Behavior and Social Movements
By: Jovana Campos, Reyna Rivera, & Martin Mondaca In this chapter we will expore collective behavior, including crowd behavior, rumor and gossip, panics, disasters, and social movement. Sociologist study disaters, like hurricanes, when they investigate collective behavior. Collective behavior is activity involving a large nunber of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and sonetimes dangerous. Panic and Mass Hysteria STUDYING COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR Resource-Mobilization Theory Panic- a form of collective behavior in which people in one place react to threat or other stimulus with irrational, frantic, and often self-destructive behavior
Mass Hysteria/Moral Panic- a form of dispersed collective behavior in which people react to a real or imagined event with irrational and even frantic fear Collective behavior is difficult to study because: It is diverse, varialble, and transitory.
Collectivity is a large number of people whose little interaction happens in the absence of well-defined norms.
Localized Collectivity- people physically close to eachother.
Dispersed Collectivity- (mass behavior)people influence eachother over a large area.
People in collectivities have no clear social boundaries, no social interaction, and create weak and unconventional norms. Disasters Disaster- an event, generally unexpected, that causes extensive harm to people and damage to property
Natural Disasters- occur naturally, e.g. floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes
Technological Disasters- caused by a failure to control technology, e.g. oil spills
Intentional Disasters- deliberately harming others, e.g. genocide, terrorist attacks, and war 4) Resource Mobilization Theory 5) Structural-Strain Theory 6) Political-Economic Theory LOCALIZED COLLECTIVITIES: CROWDS Social Movements Social Movement- an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change, e.g. the Gay Rights movement has won legal changes in numerous cities, forbidding discrimination on sexual orientation, allowing gay marriage, but like any social movement there is also a countermovement by people who want to limit social acceptance of homosexuality.
In today's society almost every important public issue gives rise to social movement wanting change and a countermovement resisting it. Gender and Social Movements Crowd: A temporary gathering of people who share a common focus of attention and who influence eachother.
Crowds are a new development.
HERBERT BLUMER- Four categories of crowds:
-Casual Crowd: loose collection of people, little interaction.
-Conventional Crowd: comes from careful planning.
-Expressive Crowd: forms around event with emotional appeal.
-Acting Crowd: motivated by intense, single minded purpose.
Additional category is a Protest Crowd: boycotts, stikes, sit-ins 7) nEw Social Movement Theory MOBS AND RIOTS Social Movements and Social Change Social Movements: Looking Ahead Mob: a highly emotional crowd that seeks a violent or destructive goal. They tend to dissipate quickly.
Lynching: associated with violence and murder carried out by William Lynch of Virginia from the colonial times.
He gave himself the position of "enforcing" the law.
Lynching mainly targets racial issues. African Americans after the Civil War were persecuted by these.
Riot: a social eruption that is highly emotional, violent, and undirected. Usually have no clear goal.
-In our nations history they are sparked by social injustice and others by race.
-Not all are fired by hate.
-They can acomplish "power". The power of the crowd can challenge the status quo and lead to
forced social change.
Types of Social Movements EXPLAINING CROWD BEHAVIOR: THEORIES Alternative Social Movements- least threatening, help certain people alter their lives, e.g. Promise Keepers
Redemptive Social Movements- help certain people redeem their lives, e.g. Alcoholic Anonymous
Reformative Social Movements- limited social change for everyone, e.g. Multiculturalism
Revolutionary Social Movements- extreme transformation of an entire society, e.g. left-wing Communist party pushing for government control of the entire economy CONTAGION THEORY: Le Bon's theory that crowds have a hypnotic influence on their members.
CONVERGENCE THEORY: states that crowd behavior comes from the particular people who join in, not the the crowd itself.
EMERGENT-NORM THEORY: Developed by Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian. Says thatif similar intersts draw people into a crowd, distinctive pattens of behavior may emerge. DISPERSED COLLECTIVITIES: MASS BEHAVIOR Claims Making Mass behavior: collective behavior among people spread over a wide geographic area. RUMOR AND GOSSIP Claims Making- the process of trying to convince the public and public officials of the importance of joining a social movement to address a particular issue. For many years, gender has been a viewed upon in the United States.
Traditional ideas say that men tend to take part in public life more than women do.
Though some women have been successfull in overcoming movement's gender barriers
including the abolitionist and feminist movement in the U.S.
Movements like these have helped our society to reduce the differences between genders. Rumor: unconfirmed information that people spread informally, often by word of mouth. They have three main characteristics:
1. Thrive in a climate of uncertainty.
2. They are unstable.
3. They are difficult to stop.
Gossip: rumor about people's personal affairs. It interests only a small curcle if people who know a particular person.
-Communities use gossip to have social control.
- Used to put people down and raise peoples's own standing as social "insiders". PUBLIC OPINION AND PROPAGANDA Explaining Social Movements Deprivation Theory Mass-Society Theory Public Opinion: Widespread attitudes about controversial issues.
-Examles: global warming, air pollution, health
-Not everyone's opinion carries the same weight.
Propaganda: Information presented with the intention of shaping public opinion, used mush by political leaders. It is utilized to sway people toward our own point of view. FASHIONS AND FADS Fashion: a social pattern favored by a large number of people. Can be seen through people's taste in clothes, music, cars and sometimes ideas in politics.
-Since the 1960's, the rich have
taken their fashion from the poor.
Many artist identify with their roots.
"I'm still Jenny from the block."
Fad: an unconventional socila pattern that peop;e embrace briefly but enthusiastically. (Crazes) Social movements have giving us social changes. Because of social movements we now live different then how people used to live. Social changes give us better ways to live. For example, a century ago workers and others fought for:
Child labor in factories
Limit working hours
Make the workplace safer
Establish worker's right s to bargain collectivelly with employers Social Movements are more likely to increase for three reasons... INTRO: First:
Protest should increase as women, African American, gay people and other historically marginalized categories of our population gaon a greater political voice. Second:
At a global level, the technology of the Information Revolution means that anyone with a television or a personal computer can be well informed about political events, often as soon as the happen. Third:
New technology and the emerging global economymean that social movements are now uniting people throoughout the entire world. Relative Deprivation- a perceived disadvantage arising from some specific comparison
People experiencing relative deprivation begin social movements. The social movement is a means of seeking change that brings participants greater benefits. Social movements are especially likely when rising expectations are frustrated. The success of or failure of social movement depends largely on resources available to it. The extent to opposition within the large society is also important. People who lack established social ties are mobilized into social movements. Periods of social breakdown are likely to spawn social movements. The social movement gives members a sense of belonging and social participation. People come together because of their shared concern about the inability of society to operate as they believe it should. The growth of the social movement reflects many factors, including the belief in in its legitimacy and some precipitaing events that provoke actions. People unite to adress the societal ills caused by capitalism, including unemployment, poverty ans lack of health care. Social movements are necessary because a capitalist economy inevitable fails to meet people's basic needs People who join social movements are motivated by quality of life issues, not necessarly economic concerns. New social movements arise in response to expanssion of the mass media and new information techmology. STAGE 1 Social movements are driven by the perception that all is not well. This is when people begint to act. For example, gay activists helped raise public concern about the threat posed by AIDS. STAGE 2 After emerging, a social movement must define itself and develop a strategy for "going public", such as rallies to engage attention. STAGE 3 Social Movements are intentional and long-lasting. Several theories explain why several social movements occur. To become a political force, social movement must become an established, bureacratic organization. Some movements becomean accepted part of the system-typically, after realizing some of their goals-so theat they continues to flurish but no longer challange the status quo. Leaders are attracted by offers of money, prestige, or power from within the "system" or when the "sellout". FIN