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AH2 - Unit 4- World War I
Transcript of AH2 - Unit 4- World War I
the war’s influence on international affairs during the 1920s.
• I can analyze the causes of WWI.
• I can explain how warfare became more modernized during WWI.
• I can analyze why the US moved from isolationism to entry into WWI.
• I can examine the ways the US prepared for WWI.
• I can analyze how civil liberties are challenged during times of conflict.
• I can understand key personalities and events during WWI.
• I can explain the problems with the Treaty of Versailles and evaluate its effectiveness.
• I can analyze the social, political and economic effects of WWI.
US enters the war!!!
A war to end war???
– Set an aggressive tone
– Countries begin to align and take sides
– Major powers wanted colonies
– All over Europe
Causes of the War
Sweeping across Europe
A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation.
Led to rivals between nations.
Many ethnic groups wanted to separate from their nations and become independent
Nations begin building up their military “toys” race
Wanted to intimidate other countries
Agreements between nations to help each other in the event of war
Led to an arms race –
Italy Ottoman Empire
F France France
Russia Russia (??)
June 28, 1914
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
– heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary
Visited the province of Bosnia with his wife
Assassinated by a Serbian nationalist group known as the
Group believed Bosnia belonged to Serbia rather than Austria-Hungary
The War Begins
Austria-Hungary accuses Serbia of plotting the assassination and threatens war
Alliance System kicks in – Central Powers begin mobilizing to assist their allies
Allies begin mobilizing to assist their allies
Europe is now at war
Reactions to Assassination
Ruled by Kaiser Wilhelm I
Great military strength and presence
Most of Europe saw Germany as a threat
in the war
Most Americans DO NOT want to get involved – viewed the war as a foreign problem
US eventually develops sympathy for Allied cause
US provides war materials to Allied troops
Both Allies and Central Powers possessed submarines
Most famous were
Germany begins to blockade Allied ships to prevent supplies from coming in
Democrat Woodrow Wilson wins 1916 election
He kept us out of war”
Americans felt that US should stay out of international conflicts
Wilson –-- Election of 1916
War quickly reaches a
Neither side could effectively defeat the other
Neither side is gaining ground on the other
Armies fought one another from trenches in the ground
Why? Modern warfare – no longer necessary to directly face the enemy
Trenches protected from fire
US continued to export war materials to the Allied troops
German U-boats begin sinking ALL ships
Unrestricted submarine warfare
1915 -- German U-boat sinks the British cruise liner
1200 died; 128 Americans included
US is furious!
Germany promised not to sink anymore passenger ships
– Germany promised the US they would not attack anymore passenger ships after sinking the Sussex
Resumed attacks in 1917
1. sinking of the Lusitania
Jeanette Rankin of Montana,
1st woman elected to Congress – House of Representatives
Voted against US entry into WWI
Zimmerman – German foreign minister
Sends a telegram to Mexico – urges Mexico to invade the US if the US entered the war
Germany promised to help Mexico win back the lands lost to the US in the Mexican-American War
2. Zimmerman Note
Ideologically, Wilson was concerned about supporting Russia, which was controlled by an autocratic dictator,
Czar Nicholas II
BUT: Nicholas II is forced from power by revolution; a provisional government is established in February 1917
Wilson could now seek war
“…to make the world safe for democracy.”
3. Russian Revolution
The provisional government under Alexander Kerensky is overthrown by the
October 25, 1917
, and a
The Communists are led by
Lenin pulls Russia out of war –
– “…to make the world safe for democracy"
“Peace without victory”
"...a war to end war."
Freedom of the seas
April 6, 1917, Congress voted overwhelmingly for the US to enter the war on behalf of the Allies.
US authorizes draft of young men for military service
Drafted over 3 million troops
Recruits trained for 9 months
Government control of industry
Selective Service Act
Men registering for Draft
War Industries Board
Placed controls on the nation’s economy as it sought to obtain supplies for the US military and its allies
Opportunities increased for women and minorities as men went off to war
Preparing for War...the U.S. on the Homefront
Headed by Herbert Hoover -
urged Americans to conserve food in short suppy to send to the troops
People began growing their own food to send to troops
Daylight savings time
Made use of extra daylight time during summer months to conserve fuel
Bonds sold to American public to raise money for the war
Final bond drives called
information or ideas deliberately spread widely to sway public opinion - may be biased or even false.
Used to recruit soldiers
“I Want You” Campaign
Committee on Public Information
President Wilson wanted support from the American people
He wanted to encourage them to purchase war (liberty) bonds
– former muckraker
Painted Germans as monsters that the U.S. must defeat
4 Minute Men -- Gave speeches in between movie reels to encourage war support
Limited civil liberties. Made it illegal to:
Interfere with the draft
Obstruct the sale of liberty bonds
Makes statements considered disloyal to, or critical of, the government, the Constitution, or the US military
sentenced to 10 years in prison for criticizing the US government
Espionage and Sedition Act
Charles Schenck arrested for urging draftees to not report for duty
He claimed to Supreme Court that it violated the 1st amendment right to free speech
Supreme Court ruled the government could silence free speech when there is a “
clear and present danger
Schenck v. US
General John Pershing
American Expeditionary Force (AEF) - ....."doughboys"
American war hero
Killed 25 Germans
Harlem Hell Fighters
African American regiment
White commanders – not allowed to fight with white troops
Used by French in combat
Armistice - Truce
Cease-fire or stop fighting – November 11, 1918
Most US soldiers were not experienced travelers
New weapons: Huge cannons, Zeppelins, machine guns, poison gases, tanks, airplanes
Poor medical care
Shell shock, trench foot
Fighting Over There
“Over There” = Europe
Hit song written by George M. Cohan
Moved to north during war time in search of jobs left by soldiers
Took jobs left by men
19th Amendment passed – granted women suffrage
Flu outbreak – 1918
Spread all over the world
¼ (25%) of the US population caught the flu
500,000 died; 40 million
On the 11th day of the 11th month at the 11th hour....
The Central Powers sign an armistice, ending WWI.
Speech that organized his idea of the future
Described solutions to prevent causes of the war
No secret treaties
Freedom of the seas
Self determination – power to govern one self – for ethnic groups in Austria-Hungary
League of Nations
Place where countries could talk about their differences rather than go to war
US - Wilson
Britain - Lloyd-George
France - Clemenceau
Italy - Orlando
Central Powers and Russia left out of the meeting
Allied leaders wanted to blame and punish Germany
Most of the Fourteen Points ignored
They did approve the League of Nations
Versailles Peace Conference
Forced Germany to sign in 1919
Germany is demilitarized
were to be paid - $13 billion
Germany had to acknowledge they were the cause of the war – “war guilt clause”
Treaty was weak – led to future wars
Germany could not repay war debt
Russia was ignored in treaty
Some in Congress thought it was too harsh...they didn't want the treaty under ANY circumstances. They were called
Others thought it needed some changes -- called the
; led by:
Henry Cabot Lodge
Thought the League of Nations threatened our ability to stay out of foreign affairs - particularly
Article X of the League Covenant
The US never ratified the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations
Has a stroke after going on a massive US tour to drum up support for the treaty. Although it was never ratified by the US, Wilson will be remembered as:
Prohibition starts – alcohol illegal – 18th Amendment
Women’s suffrage – 19th Amendment
Victory in the Great War (WWI)
His vision to create a world organization (League of Nations)
Normalcy in Government
Warren G. Harding
A Return to Normalcy
Japan, Great Britain invited to Washington, DC
Agreed to keep their navy from becoming too threatening
Washington Naval Conferences
Promoted isolationism in US
Signed by more than 60 countries
Promised to negotiate rather than go to war
US and Allied bankers loaned money to Germany to pay back war debts owed under the Treaty of Versailles
Helped rebuild Europe....
Working conditions – still not good for some
Wartime inflation – prices are high
Technological unemployment – people are out of work due to technology
Leader – United Mine Workers
Promised a “no strike” agreement with the government during WWI
Began strike after armistice signed
Union made to go back to work
Unions lost much of their influence
John L. Lewis
“Red Scare” -- fear of communism...
US Communist Party
Government owns all property – control of everything, little individual rights
Many in US felt that Communism may spread to the US
The Red Scare
Anarchists attempted to assassinate both
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
and John D. Rockefeller
Many thought the attacks were in response to Communism
1919 & 1920 -- Thousands suspected of Communism/radicalism were arrested – some were immigrants with no Communist ties
Hundreds were deported or jailed.
Accused of being anarchists
Accused of murder in Massachusetts – armed robbery and murder of 2 clerks
Executed via electrocution in 1927
Many felt that they were innocent and convicted solely because of their views
Sacco and Vanzetti
Sacco and Vanzetti
Fear of Communism
Mistrust of immigrants
Attacked Jews, Catholics, immigrants
Hated anyone who wasn't white, native-born Protestant
Burned crosses in front of people’s homes
Sent hate letters
Put pressure on employers to fire black or immigrant workers
Growth of the KKK
Senators who refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles under any circumstances
Zeppelins will prove to be risky in the early years.....
In 1937, the German zeppelin
found out the
Sgt. Alvin York became a war hero
Based on his idea of "
peace without victory"....
No peace imposed on loser by the victor -- causes resentment
Gave the world -- and the U.S. --
a false sense of security!!
Ended the first Red Scare, but......
stay tuned for another!!!
The sacrifices of WWI led many Americans to seek fun again!
The decade that follows is one of excess and decadance --
...followed by a decade of despair.
Major powers were competing for colonies around the world
Senators who would ratify the Treaty of Versailles with changes
The "rape of Belgium"...6000 dead, 25,000 homes destroyed
the Schleiffen Plan
Edith Cavell, a British nurse, was
tried as a spy and executed.
A new wave of nativism begins....and Congress responds!
Emergency Quota Act
- limited the number of new immigrants
- Reduced the number again
National Origins Act
- reduced the number of immigrants specifically from Asia and Southern & Eastern Europe
Began because of the growing number of labor strikes, race riots and anarchist bombings in several cities
The NEW KKK was not just a Southern thing anymore -- they were equal opportunity haters!