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AH2 - Unit 4- World War I

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Jennifer Byrd

on 4 March 2016

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Transcript of AH2 - Unit 4- World War I

Unit 4: ThE Great War and Its Aftermath (1914-1930) - The learner will analyze United States involvement in World War I and
the war’s influence on international affairs during the 1920s.

Learning Targets:
• I can analyze the causes of WWI.
• I can explain how warfare became more modernized during WWI.
• I can analyze why the US moved from isolationism to entry into WWI.
• I can examine the ways the US prepared for WWI.
• I can analyze how civil liberties are challenged during times of conflict.
• I can understand key personalities and events during WWI.
• I can explain the problems with the Treaty of Versailles and evaluate its effectiveness.
• I can analyze the social, political and economic effects of WWI.


US enters the war!!!
A war to end war???

M
ilitarism
– Set an aggressive tone
A
lliance System
– Countries begin to align and take sides
I
mperialism
– Major powers wanted colonies
N
ationalism
– All over Europe

Causes of the War
Sweeping across Europe
A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation.
Led to rivals between nations.
Many ethnic groups wanted to separate from their nations and become independent
Nationalism


Militarism
Nations begin building up their military “toys” race
Wanted to intimidate other countries

Agreements between nations to help each other in the event of war
Led to an arms race –
Alliances
Triple Alliance

CENTRAL POWERS
Germany Germany
Austria-Hungary A-H
Italy Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
Triple Entente

ALLIES
F France France
Britain Britain
Russia Russia (??)
Italy
Japan (later)
Alliances
June 28, 1914
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
– heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary
Visited the province of Bosnia with his wife
Assassinated by a Serbian nationalist group known as the
“Black Hand”
Gavrilo Princip
Group believed Bosnia belonged to Serbia rather than Austria-Hungary
The War Begins
Gavrilo Princip
“Black Hand”
Austria-Hungary accuses Serbia of plotting the assassination and threatens war
Alliance System kicks in – Central Powers begin mobilizing to assist their allies
Allies begin mobilizing to assist their allies
Europe is now at war
Reactions to Assassination
Ruled by Kaiser Wilhelm I
Great military strength and presence
Most of Europe saw Germany as a threat
GERMANY
Wilson declares
neutrality
in the war
Most Americans DO NOT want to get involved – viewed the war as a foreign problem
US eventually develops sympathy for Allied cause
US provides war materials to Allied troops
U.S. Neutrality
Both Allies and Central Powers possessed submarines
Most famous were
German U-boats
Germany begins to blockade Allied ships to prevent supplies from coming in
Submarine Warfare
Democrat Woodrow Wilson wins 1916 election
Slogan: “
He kept us out of war”
US remains
isolationist
Americans felt that US should stay out of international conflicts
Wilson –-- Election of 1916
War quickly reaches a
stalemate
Neither side could effectively defeat the other

Why???
Stalemate
Vocabulary Alert!!!

stalemate:
Neither side is gaining ground on the other
Trench Warfare
Armies fought one another from trenches in the ground
Why? Modern warfare – no longer necessary to directly face the enemy
Trenches protected from fire
Modern Warfare
New technology
Submarines
Airplanes
Zeppelins
Machine guns
Poisonous gas
Mustard Gas
US continued to export war materials to the Allied troops
German U-boats begin sinking ALL ships
– “
Unrestricted submarine warfare

1915 -- German U-boat sinks the British cruise liner
Lusitania

1200 died; 128 Americans included
US is furious!
Germany promised not to sink anymore passenger ships
Sussex Pledge
– Germany promised the US they would not attack anymore passenger ships after sinking the Sussex

Resumed attacks in 1917
1. sinking of the Lusitania


Jeanette Rankin of Montana,
1st woman elected to Congress – House of Representatives
Voted against US entry into WWI
Zimmerman – German foreign minister
Sends a telegram to Mexico – urges Mexico to invade the US if the US entered the war
Germany promised to help Mexico win back the lands lost to the US in the Mexican-American War
2. Zimmerman Note
Ideologically, Wilson was concerned about supporting Russia, which was controlled by an autocratic dictator,
Czar Nicholas II
BUT: Nicholas II is forced from power by revolution; a provisional government is established in February 1917
Wilson could now seek war
“…to make the world safe for democracy.”
3. Russian Revolution
The provisional government under Alexander Kerensky is overthrown by the
Bolsheviks
in
October 25, 1917
, and a
communist regime
is established.
The Communists are led by
Vladimir Lenin
Lenin pulls Russia out of war –
TURNING POINT!!!
Bolshevik Revolution
But then...
Vladimir Lenin

– “…to make the world safe for democracy"

“Peace without victory”

"...a war to end war."

Freedom of the seas

American honor
April 6, 1917, Congress voted overwhelmingly for the US to enter the war on behalf of the Allies.
Ideological wilson
US authorizes draft of young men for military service
Drafted over 3 million troops
Recruits trained for 9 months
Transportation problems
Government control of industry
Use of
convoy system
Selective Service Act
Men registering for Draft
War Industries Board

Placed controls on the nation’s economy as it sought to obtain supplies for the US military and its allies
Headed by
Bernard Baruch
Opportunities increased for women and minorities as men went off to war
Preparing for War...the U.S. on the Homefront



Headed by Herbert Hoover -

urged Americans to conserve food in short suppy to send to the troops
Victory gardens
People began growing their own food to send to troops
Daylight savings time
Made use of extra daylight time during summer months to conserve fuel
Food Administration



Bonds sold to American public to raise money for the war
Final bond drives called
Victory Bonds
Liberty Bonds
Public Opinion
Vocabulary Alert:

Propaganda
--
information or ideas deliberately spread widely to sway public opinion - may be biased or even false.
Used to recruit soldiers
“I Want You” Campaign
Use of
propaganda

Committee on Public Information
President Wilson wanted support from the American people
.
He wanted to encourage them to purchase war (liberty) bonds
Hires
George Creel
– former muckraker
Painted Germans as monsters that the U.S. must defeat
4 Minute Men -- Gave speeches in between movie reels to encourage war support
Limited civil liberties. Made it illegal to:
Interfere with the draft
Obstruct the sale of liberty bonds
Makes statements considered disloyal to, or critical of, the government, the Constitution, or the US military
Eugene Debs
sentenced to 10 years in prison for criticizing the US government
Espionage and Sedition Act
Charles Schenck arrested for urging draftees to not report for duty
He claimed to Supreme Court that it violated the 1st amendment right to free speech
Supreme Court ruled the government could silence free speech when there is a “
clear and present danger

involved
Schenck v. US
General John Pershing
Leader of
American Expeditionary Force (AEF) - ....."doughboys"
Alvin York
American war hero
Killed 25 Germans

Harlem Hell Fighters

African American regiment
White commanders – not allowed to fight with white troops
Used by French in combat
Armistice - Truce
Cease-fire or stop fighting – November 11, 1918

Military Operations
Most US soldiers were not experienced travelers
New weapons: Huge cannons, Zeppelins, machine guns, poison gases, tanks, airplanes
Poor medical care
Shell shock, trench foot
Fighting Over There
Shell Shock
Psychological trauma
Trench Foot
Ewwwwwww......
Medical Care
“Over There” = Europe
Hit song written by George M. Cohan

African-Americans
“Great Migration”
Moved to north during war time in search of jobs left by soldiers
Women

Took jobs left by men
19th Amendment passed – granted women suffrage
Social Changes
Flu outbreak – 1918
Spread all over the world
¼ (25%) of the US population caught the flu
500,000 died; 40 million
dead worldwide
Epidemic
On the 11th day of the 11th month at the 11th hour....

The Central Powers sign an armistice, ending WWI.
War Ends
Speech that organized his idea of the future
Described solutions to prevent causes of the war
No secret treaties
Freedom of the seas
Lower tariffs
Reduce armaments
Self determination – power to govern one self – for ethnic groups in Austria-Hungary
Territorial integrity
League of Nations
Place where countries could talk about their differences rather than go to war
Fourteen Points

Big Four

US - Wilson
Britain - Lloyd-George
France - Clemenceau
Italy - Orlando
Central Powers and Russia left out of the meeting
Allied leaders wanted to blame and punish Germany
Most of the Fourteen Points ignored
They did approve the League of Nations
Versailles Peace Conference
Forced Germany to sign in 1919
Germany is demilitarized
Reparations
were to be paid - $13 billion
Germany had to acknowledge they were the cause of the war – “war guilt clause”
Treaty was weak – led to future wars
Germany could not repay war debt
Russia was ignored in treaty
Colonialism remained
Treaty of
Versailles
Some in Congress thought it was too harsh...they didn't want the treaty under ANY circumstances. They were called
IRRECONCILABLES
.

Others thought it needed some changes -- called the
Reservationists
; led by:

Henry Cabot Lodge
Thought the League of Nations threatened our ability to stay out of foreign affairs - particularly
Article X of the League Covenant
The US never ratified the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations
ISOLATIONISM!!!
Opposition
Has a stroke after going on a massive US tour to drum up support for the treaty. Although it was never ratified by the US, Wilson will be remembered as:
Progressive Reformer
Prohibition starts – alcohol illegal – 18th Amendment
Women’s suffrage – 19th Amendment
Victory in the Great War (WWI)
His vision to create a world organization (League of Nations)
Predicted WWII!
Wilson’s Legacy
Normalcy in Government
1920 –
Warren G. Harding
is elected
Isolationist,but ....
A Return to Normalcy
Proposed disarmament
Japan, Great Britain invited to Washington, DC
Agreed to keep their navy from becoming too threatening
Washington Naval Conferences

1928
Promoted isolationism in US
Signed by more than 60 countries
Promised to negotiate rather than go to war
Kellogg-Briand Pact
US and Allied bankers loaned money to Germany to pay back war debts owed under the Treaty of Versailles

Helped rebuild Europe....
Dawes Plan
Working conditions – still not good for some
Wartime inflation – prices are high
Technological unemployment – people are out of work due to technology

Labor Unrest
Leader – United Mine Workers
Promised a “no strike” agreement with the government during WWI
Began strike after armistice signed
Union made to go back to work
Unions lost much of their influence
John L. Lewis
Bolshevik Revolution
– 1917
Lenin, Communists
“Red Scare” -- fear of communism...
US Communist Party
Government owns all property – control of everything, little individual rights
Many in US felt that Communism may spread to the US
The Red Scare

Anarchists attempted to assassinate both
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
and John D. Rockefeller
Many thought the attacks were in response to Communism
1919 & 1920 -- Thousands suspected of Communism/radicalism were arrested – some were immigrants with no Communist ties
Hundreds were deported or jailed.
Palmer raids
Italian immigrants
Accused of being anarchists
Accused of murder in Massachusetts – armed robbery and murder of 2 clerks
Found guilty
Executed via electrocution in 1927
Many felt that they were innocent and convicted solely because of their views
Sacco and Vanzetti
Sacco and Vanzetti
Fear of Communism
Mistrust of immigrants
Attacked Jews, Catholics, immigrants
Hated anyone who wasn't white, native-born Protestant
Burned crosses in front of people’s homes
Sent hate letters
Put pressure on employers to fire black or immigrant workers
Lynching
Growth of the KKK
Vocabulary Alert...

Irreconcilables
:
Senators who refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles under any circumstances
Vocabulary Alert:

reparations
--
war damages
Zeppelins will prove to be risky in the early years.....
In 1937, the German zeppelin
Hindenburg
found out the
hard way....
Sgt. Alvin York became a war hero
Wilson's Plan
Based on his idea of "
peace without victory"....

No peace imposed on loser by the victor -- causes resentment
Gave the world -- and the U.S. --
a false sense of security!!
Ended the first Red Scare, but......
stay tuned for another!!!
The sacrifices of WWI led many Americans to seek fun again!
The decade that follows is one of excess and decadance --
...followed by a decade of despair.
Imperialism
Major powers were competing for colonies around the world
Conservation efforts:
Vocabulary alert...
Reservationists
:
Senators who would ratify the Treaty of Versailles with changes
The "rape of Belgium"...6000 dead, 25,000 homes destroyed
the Schleiffen Plan
Edith Cavell, a British nurse, was
tried as a spy and executed.
A new wave of nativism begins....and Congress responds!

1921 -
Emergency Quota Act
- limited the number of new immigrants
1924 -
Immigrant Act
- Reduced the number again
1924 -
National Origins Act
- reduced the number of immigrants specifically from Asia and Southern & Eastern Europe
Began because of the growing number of labor strikes, race riots and anarchist bombings in several cities
The NEW KKK was not just a Southern thing anymore -- they were equal opportunity haters!
Full transcript