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Transcript of Supportive Approaches
Michelle Lurch-Shaw & Phuong Powell Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management Linda Albert: Cooperative Discipline Barriers and Builders Rudolf Dreikurs:
Democratic Teaching and Management Overview
Like Dreikurs, Albert uses the Four Causes of Misbehavior as the basis for Cooperative Discipline
Focus of this model is influence and cooperation
Students choose their behavior
Teachers influence choices rather than trying to control behavior
Influence choices through encouragement techniques that build self-esteem, cooperation and motivation to learn Jane Nelsen, Lynn Lott, & Stephen Glenn: Positive Discipline •Enables teachers to provide an environment that inspires excitement about life and learning, emphasizing caring, mutual respect, encouragement, and order
•Teaches students to respect others and feel empathy
•Priority on understanding why students behave as they do
•Any form of punishment should be avoided
•Goes BEYOND academics and teach skills to be successful in schools and society
•Use Classroom Meetings to facilitate positive discipline Stems from the belief that educators often create barriers (show disrespect and discouragement) to their students
Educators should instead work to build up students and their abilities to promote positive self-learning, awareness, and empowerment
Barriers and Builders identify teacher actions and offer solutions that encourage student self-learning Core Belief:
When teachers act in a democratic fashion, they demonstrate effective instruction and provide a collaborative learning community where teachers and students work towards common goals. Connect
To teacher and classmates
Develop positive relationships
To the class
Help maintain the classroom,
Cooperative learning, peer-tutoring,
Involvement in decision-making
Capable of successful behavior
Create safe environment where students do not fear making mistakes
Build confidence by focusing on improvement, attainable goals
Show interest in student's activities outside of school
Accept students regardless of behavior Important
Encouragement should be used at home
Speaking With Parents
Use objective language,
Select examples of misbehavior
Present a plan to address misbehavior
Ask for parents' help,
Document conversations Practical Classroom Management Implications: Provides positive, collaborative classrooms where students and teachers come together toward a common purpose. Four Important Aspects
of Dreikurs’ Approach:
1.identifying and addressing mistaken goals of misbehavior
2.acting as a democratic (not autocratic or permissive) teacher
3.using logical consequences (instead of punishment)
4.understanding the difference between praise and encouragement 5 Barriers and Builders The Significant Seven: three Empowering Perceptions and Four Essential Skills Three empowering perceptions
Perceptions of personal capabilities
Perceptions of significance in primary relationships
Perceptions of the personal power of influence in life
Four Essential Skills
Judgment skills Incredible benefits of classroom meetings for teachers and students
Involving students in their education
Teaching them to think for themselves
Offers a chance for living out the significant 7 Classroom Meetings Work out a solution together
Understand the child's developmental abilities
Discipline through play
State facts rather than making demands
Make requests in the affirmative
Allow natural consequences
Use care when offering praise Talk to a child before intervening
Don't force apologies
Comfort the hurt child first
Be sensitive to strong emotions
Use logical consequences sparingly
and with compassion
Use incentives creatively with older children Techniques and Best Practices of Positive Discipline Forrest Gathercoal: Judicious Discipline Cooperative
Discipline Positive Discipline Richard Curwin and Allen Mendler: Discipline with Dignity Overview
Emphasizes teachers conveying dignity upon students (like Judicious Discipline)
Addresses violence, hostility and aggression
Focuses on teacher and student behavior rather than one-size fits all strategies and techniques Classroom management should be student centered, democratic, non-authoritarian and responsibility based
Work toward long-term behavior changes
Stop doing ineffective things
Be fair without treating everyone the same way
Make rules that make sense
Model what they expect
Believe that responsibility is more important than obedience
Treat students with dignity Key Concepts Encouragement Techniques: Connect, Contribute, Capable (The three C's) Parental Support Delivering Corrective Messages Using privacy, eye contact (sensitivity to cultural differences), proximity
Teachers speak comments quietly so only the student can hear A way for teachers to take charge and give students decision-making power
Define acceptable and unacceptable behavior before students misbehave
Give students a sense of ownership because they are involved in making the rules
Spell out an exact procedure for students and the teacher to follow when rules are broken Social Contracts Consequences Not a punishment
Clarified in advance so students are aware of them; clear and specific
Directly relate to the rules – flow logically and naturally
Instructional rather than punitive
1. Reminder of the rule
2. A warning
3. Developing an action plan for improving
4. Practicing behavior Power Struggles Best to avoid them. No one wins
Some are inevitable, so . . . need to prepare
Refusing to engage
listening, acknowledging, agreeing that there might be truth in student’s accusation, deferring to a private time for continued discussion
Use “OR” statements
Remove the student from the class to avoid having an audience Zero-Tolerance Intended to improve safety by sending a strong message that violent, aggressive behavior would not be tolerated
Curwin and Mendler believe policies are inherently unfair because all students are treated alike, regardless of the circumstances
Difficult to eliminate because
Simple to understand
Give the impression of high standards of behavior Discipline with Dignity A citizenship approach using the constitutional perspective
Designed to complement more refined management models (teacher’s primary classroom management model)
Synthesizes professional ethics, effective educational practices, and student constitutional rights
Front loading: educators develop and teach rules and expectations for behavior through class discussions, group activities that are designed to create rules based on constitutional concepts, and class meetings in which classroom conflicts are resolved peacefully in a democratic forum.
Four legal compelling state interests Educators should model acceptable standards of moral, proper conduct, and act in the best interest of the students. Educators must draft and post their personal statement, or code of ethics, to allow students and other teachers to see the code of ethics in which the educator tries to live.
Encourage and model an eagerness for learning and teaching
Model responsible professional behavior
Manifest appropriate personal behaviors
Focus their efforts on motivation, encouragement, and building student’s self-esteem
Accept the reality that students behave in ways they truly believe at that time are in their own best interests
Develop judicious rules and consequences that accept students as citizens
Feel challenged by the problems in education and be proud they are in a position to help students Professional Ethics Students and educators should cooperatively develop behavioral guidelines for their own teaching and learning based upon four interests: property loss and damage; threat to health and safety; legitimate educational purpose; and serious disruption of the educational process
Provides the opportunity for developing and discussing goals, expectations, and relationships
Teaches new skills, such as conflict resolution
Guidelines for class meetings
Names must never be used; “A person who acts in this way…”
Everyone should agree to stay on topic
Start each meeting with journal writing. Prompt: “Does anyone have concerns, clarifications, or problem areas they would like to discuss?” Effective Educational Practices Amendment 1 Freedoms, Petitions, Assembly
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Amendment 2 Right to bear arms & Amendment 3 Quartering of soldiers are not applicable because the school zone is a safe zone.
Amendment 4 Search and arrest
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Amendment 5 Rights in criminal cases Amendment 6 Right to a fair trial Amendment 7 Rights in civil cases
Students have the right to a fair and speedy trial by jury (peers)
Amendment 8 Bail, fines, punishment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Amendment 9 Rights retained by the People
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Amendment 10 States' rights
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. Bill of Rights Property loss and damage
No one has the right to destroy the property of another person or school property.
Threat to health and safety
Educators are responsible for protecting students’ physical safety, as well as their psychological and emotional health.
Legitimate educational purpose
Educational rules and consequences should help students succeed in school and should address issues such as plagiarism, classroom and homework assignments, grading practices, and special or advanced placement.
Serious disruption of the educational process
School official have the legal authority and the professional responsibility to deny student rights if those rights seriously disrupt educational activities Four Legal Compelling State Interests 1. Based on the U.S. Bill of Rights, Judicious Discipline is a citizenship approach that teaches students about the rights and responsibilities needed to live and learn in a democratic society.
2. Educators should always practice professional ethics by modeling acceptable standards of moral and proper conduct and by acting in the best interests of students.
3. Students and educators should cooperatively develop behavioral guidelines for their own teaching and learning based upon four interests: property loss and damage; threat to health and safety; legitimate educational purpose; and serious disruption of the educational process.
4. Educators should use judicious consequences rather than rewards and punishments.
5. Educators should consider students’ constitutional rights and provide consequences based upon individual situations. Key Concepts of Judicious Discipline Judicious