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Transcript of Comparing Countries
French III Honors, Dr. Momet Block 4
2 ranges of the Atlas Mountains
The Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas
Stretches across Algeria divides into three physical regions.
Coast is a region of fertile farmland rolling upward to the Tell Atlas. This region is known as the Tell.
Grain, vegetables, native cork-oak forests, citrus trees first brought by the Phoenicians, olive groves started by the Romans, and vineyards planted by the French all grow there.
High Plateaus is a broad, dry, grass-covered plateaus (Between the Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas)
Wheat and barley are grown, esparto grass is cut, and sheep farming is carried on.
Throughout the region, there are chotts (shotts), or salt lakes, that dry up in the summer.
Desert covers the rest of the country (catches the last moisture in the air)
Ahaggar Mountains rise in the southeast
Some of the desert is flat; other areas are high, rugged, and rocky.
The desert is not all sand dunes and oases.
Much of southern Algeria is covered with large rock formations and stony wastelands, rather than fine sand.
Switzerland occupies 15,938 sq. mi.
area almost twice the size of New Jersey
shares borders with Germany on the northeast, Austria and the tiny principality of Liechtenstein on the east, Italy on the south, and France on the west and northwest.
lies within Europe's Alpine Mountain System,
Few places below 1,000 ft. in elevation, and more than half the land higher than 3,000 ft.
three geographic regions span the country.
Swiss Alps: They cover more than half of Switzerland and make up a fourth of the entire Alps.
The Alps remain lofty, steep, and jagged. Their peaks are among the most dramatic in the world.
The Swiss Plateau: known as the Mittelland ( "middle land" ).
It stretches across the north-central third of Switzerland, from Lake Geneva, on the country's western border with France, to Lake Constance, on its northeastern border with Germany.
The plateau forms a high, broad rectangle of rolling plains.
The Juras: rise up from the Mittelland along its northwestern border. Far older and lower than the Alps, the Juras (Celtic for "forestland" ) consist of parallel lines of rounded mountains.
Because the Juras have few gaps, or passes, they create a rugged barrier between Switzerland and northeastern France.
Republic of Mali is a vast, landlocked country in western Africa.
It has an area of 478,640 sq. mi. and a steadily growing population.
It has seven countries on its borders:
Algeria, Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, and Niger.
covers an area that extends from desert to a semi-desert region and then to partly arid tropical savannas of grassland and brush, rich with wild game.
It is generally hot year round.
In the desert: there is almost continuous drought and no predictable rainfall.
Farther south the climate changes to one of alternate wet and dry spells.
The Niger: Africa's third-longest river, is of great importance to the life and future development of Mali.
It sweeps in a huge arc across the central part of the country.
The fertile Niger Valley: in the center of the country
Is one of Mali's important agricultural areas.
Vast deposits of oil and natural gas were found in the 1950s
Hassi Messaoud ( "happy spring" ) is one of the most important oil fields.
Other locations = El Gassi, Edjeleh, Tiguentourine, and Zarzaïtine
Gas is drilled at In Salah and Hassi R'Mel.
Important deposits of iron ore and phosphates in the Aurès
Iron ore in the western region of the Algerian Sahara.
Exports: $68.2 billion f.o.b. (2013 est.): petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%.
Imports: $55.02 billion f.o.b. (2013 est.): capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods.
Switzerland's mineral resources are limited.
There are small iron and manganese deposits in the Jura but no known deposits of coal.
A variety of materials is worthy of commercial exploitation.
Among them are lime, salt, sand, gravel, clay, and marble.
Switzerland's lack of mineral resources is largely counterbalanced by its greatest asset—waterpower—which is harnessed…
Exports: $322 billion (2011 est.): machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, agricultural products.
Imports: $317.5 billion (2011 est.): machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, textiles
Gold, phosphates, kaolin, and salt, are the most well known resources.
Llimestone, uranium, and hydro-power are others available
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited.
Exports: $2.557 billion (2012 est.): cotton, gold, livestock.
Imports: $3.209 billion (2012 est.): petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
8 million people.
16 million people
38 million people
Phoenician traders settled on the Mediterranean coast in the 1st millennium B.C.
Algeria became a Roman colony at the close of the Punic Wars (145 B.C.).
Fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire in 1536
French occupied Algeria in 1830 and made it a part of France in 1848.
Algerian independence movements led to the uprisings of 1954–1955
Algeria entered a major recession after world oil prices plummeted in the 1980s.
The fundamentalist Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut; FIS) won the country's first-ever parliamentary elections in Dec. 1991
An estimated 100,000 people have been massacred by Islamic terrorists since war began in Jan. 1992
In April 2007, 35 people were killed and hundreds wounded when suicide bombers attacked a government building
At least 43 people were killed in August 2008, when a suicide bomber drove an explosives-laden car into a police academy
In November 2008, Parliament approved constitutional changes for presidential 3rd terms
On Jan. 16, 2013, Islamic militants took dozens of foreign hostages at the BP-controlled In Amenas gas field
On Sept. 3, 2012, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika named Abdelmalek Sellal as prime minister.
On March 13, 2014, Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal resigned in order to run the reelection campaign of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
Bouteflika was reelected to a fourth term in April 2014, taking 81% of the vote.
Called Helvetia in ancient times, In 1291 was a league of cantons in the Holy Roman Empire
In 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia gave Switzerland its independence from the Holy Roman Empire.
French revolutionary troops occupied the country in 1798
in 1803, Napoleon restored its federal government
By 1815, the French- and Italian-speaking peoples of Switzerland had been granted political equality.
In 1815, the Congress of Vienna guaranteed the neutrality and recognized the independence of Switz.
In 1848, the new Swiss constitution established a union modeled on that of the U.S.
1874 The federal constitution established a strong central government giving large powers of control to each canton.
Women were not given the right to vote or to hold office until 1971
Switzerland's first woman president was Ruth Dreifuss in 1999.
On Sept 10, 2002, the Swiss abandoned their long-held neutrality to become the 190th member of the UN.
In Oct. 2003, Switzerland took a turn to the right when the far-right Swiss People's Party (SVP)
In Dec., 2011, Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf was elected president becoming the third consecutive female pres.
Early in Feb. 2014, a referendum calling for quotas on EU migrants passed with 50.3% of the vote.
The Malinke empire ruled regions of Mali from the 12th to the 16th century
The Songhai empire reigned over the Timbuktu-Gao region in the 15th century.
In 1946 became part of the French Union.
On June 20, 1960, it became independent
Mali and Burkina Faso fought a brief border war from Dec. 25 to 29, 1985.
In 1991, dictator Moussa Traoré was overthrown, and Mali made a peaceful transition to democracy.
In 1992, Alpha Konaré became Mali's first democratically elected president.
A peace agreement was signed in 1995, and thousands of Tuareg refugees returned to the country.
In May 1997 Mali's second multiparty national elections took place with President Konaré winning again
In June 2002, Amadou Toumani Touré was elected president
In 2004, he appointed Ousmane Issoufi Maïga as the new prime minister.
In June 2006, the government signed a peace treaty ending a Tuareg rebellion
Touré was reelected in April 2007
In April 2011, Cisse´ Mariam Kaidama Sidibe´ became Mali's first-ever female prime minister
In March 2012, President Touré was overthrown in a coup by mutineering soldiers
On Jan. 16, 2013, Islamic militants entered Algeria from Mali and took dozens of foreign hostages
In May 2014 Defense Minister Soumeylou Boybeye Maiga resigned after the attack on Malian troops
Roman Catholic and Protestant
President: Didier Burkhalter (2014)
President: Ibrahim Boubacar Keita (2013)
Prime Minister: Moussa Mara (2014)
President: Abdel-Aziz Bouteflika (1999)
Prime Minister: Abdelmalek Sellal (2012)
#1 Attraction- Notre Dame d'Afrique
Type: Religious Sites
Description: Cathedral in Algiers.
Travelers' Choice™ 2014 Winner
#5 Attraction in Zurich- Live Escape Game
Description: Live Escape Game is a "real life" interpretation of the popular room escape games with tracks in English and in German. Your team has 60 minutes to escape from our tracks via solving mysteries, finding hidden clues.
#1 Attraction in Bamako- Parc national du Mali
Type: National Parks
Algerians are of mixed ancestry, mainly of Berber or Arab origins,
Descendents of Europeans
The French or Spanish
Also Sub-Saharan Africans.
Skin, hair and eye color vary greatly.
The place of religion
The vast majority of Algerians are Sunni Muslims
In some places, there are minority groups of Christians.
Dance, Music and the Arts
Experiencing something of a revival
The oud (a stringed lute-like instrument)
Maqrunah (an Arabic wind instrument which can be fitted with a pouch, similar to a bag-pipe)
Music influenced by global trends.
Rap-style Rai = modern form of Algerian songs
German, French and Italian
reflected in a wide range of traditional customs
The 26 cantons account for the large cultural diversity.
many ethnic groups
Bambara, Tuareg, Dogon, Songhai, Senufo, and Fulani
married sons and families
divorced or widowed with their children
other related adults.
Their unmarried children.
modern family and household structure
Late to marry and conceive
Three different forms of marriage
extended patrilineal family
their wives and children,
Whoever has completed the 3 previous levels of edu.
awarded Diplôme d'Etudes Fondamentales
Awarded certificat d'Aptitude Professionnelle
awarded Brevet de Technicien
awarded Licence, Maitrise, Diplôme d’Etudes Approfondies, and Doctorate
Football Aka Soccer
Fav. Dish = couscous
Fav. Dish = Rösti
Fav. Dish = Riz aux Sautés de Légumes et Foie
Cross between Arab, Mediterranean and African
Distinctive jewelry worn
Combines flamboyance, utility and elegance.
Strong emphasis on intricate decoration and colors.
The use of colorful fabrics for clothing stands out against surrounding earth tones.
Reds, yellows, greens and blues color combinations are combined and finely embroidered with gold and silver threads.
The Karakou: typical traditional dress
saroual: Arab pants
The Blousa: full-length, straight-cut dress
The Djeba Fergani: traditional dress from Constantine
Mix of French and Arab
Known for Lacy
Modern and similar to American Fashion
Islamic and African mix
a pagne (wraparound skirt)
matching tunic and headdress
boubou (an ample, full-length tunic)
wraparound or narrow tailored skirts
matching cotton print tops
Western-style pants and shirts or short tunics
wraparound skirts and tunics
Modern Western clothes
Line Monty, stage name Leïla Fateh
was a Jewish Algerian singer.
Islam Slimani (born 18 June 1988)
Is a striker for Sporting Clube de Portugal and the Algeria national team.
Giuseppe Bausilio (born June 20, 1997 in Bern, Switzerland)
Swiss actor, dancer, and singer.
Bausilio is best known for his portrayal of "Billy" in the Broadway Billy Elliot the Musical,
Anna Mae Bullock (born November 26, 1939)
stage name Tina Turner
singer, dancer, actress, and author
(born 1982 in Ivory Coast)
Malian musician currently living in France.
Malick Sidibé (born 1935 or 1936)
noted for his black-and-white studies of popular culture in the 1960s in Bamako.
African federation says more punishments will follow
Albert Ebossé was hit by flying object and killed
Algerian club banned from using stadium after player’s death
The Algerian football club JS Kabylie have been banned from using their stadium pending investigations after one of their players was hit on the head and killed by an object thrown by fans.
The Confederation of African Football on Tuesday backed measures taken by the Algerian authorities to stop Kabylie from playing at 1 November 1954 Stadium in the city of Tizi Ouzou, where the Cameroonian striker Albert Ebossé was fatally hit at a game on Saturday. The CAF said it was only the first sanction and Kabylie face more punishment.
The CAF said the 24-year-old Ebossé suffered a head trauma and internal bleeding after being hit by a “sharp object”. It appeared to be hurled by his team’s supporters after a 2-1 loss.
The Fifa president, Sepp Blatter, said it was “intolerable that a spectator caused the death of a player”.
Tuesday 26 August 2014 06.41 EDT
Swiss resort sets up stone-skimming contest to shake off 'most boring' label
Village of Ermatingen establishes competition
residents take offence at being labelled Switzerland's most dull resort
A village described as "the most boring holiday resort in Switzerland" is calling on Scottish stone-skimming experts to help set up a competition that will liven up the region.
A local hotelier, Andy Hostettler, came up with the idea of hosting a stone-skimming championship after residents in the picturesque village of Ermatingen in northern Switzerland took offence at the resort being billed as boring earlier this year.
Business owners and tourist officials say the title reflects the fact that the quiet village "has nothing, does nothing, and offers nothing" and so offers a tranquil and relaxing place to go on holiday.
Hostettler had planned on hosting what he thought would be the first stone-skimming world championships, but upon discovering that already took place on Easdale Island in Scotland, he contacted the organisers to ask if he could set up a qualifying round instead.
Islamists bankrolled by large-scale African drug-smuggling operation
Militant groups pay west African drivers £8,600
transport cocaine to Europe under noses of UN peacekeepers
Islamist groups in northern Mali are paying local drivers to smuggle drugs and migrants across the desert for shipment to Europe, according to sources in Timbuktu.
Smuggling operations are the financial backbone of Islamist groups such as al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (Aqim). Their total territorial and economic control of the vast, hostile Sahara region is dwarfing the impact of western military efforts, despite dozens of French bombing raids and the deployment of close to 10,000 United Nations peacekeepers in Mali.
On Sunday, a new armed group calling itself the Caliphate Soldiers in Algeria (Jound al Khilafa fi Ard al Jazayer) announced it had split with Aqim and sworn loyalty to Islamic State (Isis), fighting in Syria and Iraq.
Talks are under way in Algiers between Mali's government and groups demanding self-rule for the north. But it seems unlikely that these will produce a package for everyone that is more appealing than illegal trade.
France recently moved its main base out of Mali, to Chad. As a result the UN has beefed up its presence with 450 Dutch special forces based in Gao, equipped with attack helicopters and unarmed drones. Sweden has pledged a similar 'elite' deployment for the UN in Timbuktu. But it will not be in place until February.
#4 Attraction- Le Bastion 23 - Palais des Rais
Type: Ghost Towns
#9 Attraction- Memorial du Martyr
Type: Monuments/ Statues
#14 Attraction- Le Port de Sidi Fredj
Type: Wharfs/ Piers/ Boardwalks
#16 Attraction- Ketchaoua Mosque
Type: Religious Sites
#21 Attraction- Musee Nationale des Arts et Traditions Populaires
#11 Attraction in Zurich- Opera House
Description: This famous performance hall, built in the late 19th century, hosts frequent dramatic and musical events.
Certificate of Excellence 2014
#7 Attraction in Basel- Basel Munster
Type: Religious Sites, Historic Sites
Certificate of Excellence 2014
#24 Atrraction in Basel- Spalentor (City Gate)
Type: Landmarks/ Points of Interest
Description: Around 1200, a second outer fortification of the town was built.
#4 Attraction in Grindelwald- Bachalpsee Lake
Type: Bodies of Water
#11 Attraction in Grindelwald- Pfingstegg
Type: Scenic/ Historic Walking Areas
Traveler Description: Pfingstegg is a view point above village of Grindelwald, offering a great view over the village and valley of Grindelwald.
#2 Attraction in Bamako- Bamako Artisan Market
Type: Flea/ Street Markets
#1 Attraction in Timbuktu- Djinguereber Mosque
Type: Museum/Religious Relic
Description: This mosque was built in 1325 and housed what was then the largest library in the world.
#1 Attraction in Gao- La Dune Rose
Category: Landmarks/ Points of Interest
#2 Attraction in Gao- Tomb of Askia
Description: The late 15th century pyramidal tomb and mosque were built by Askia Mohamed for the emperors of the Songhai empire.
#1 Attraction in Dejenne- Great Mosque Of Djenne
Type: Religious Sites
Description: The wold's largest mosque built of sun-dried mud bricks makes a stunning site.
Telephones: main lines in use: 3.2 million (2012)
mobile cellular: 37.692 million (2012)
Internet hosts: 676 (2012)
Internet users: 4.7 million (2012).
Algeria has made major technological advances, especially in the steel and petrochemical industries. However, Algeria still has a severe shortage of skilled workers and is heavily dependent on foreign technologies
Telephones: main lines in use: 4.684 million (2011)
mobile cellular: 10.017 million (2011)
Broadcast media: the publicly-owned radio and TV broadcaster
7 national TV networks
3 broadcasting in German
2 in Italian
2 in French
18 radio stations (2009).
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5.301 million (2012).
Internet users: 6.152 million (2009).
Telephones: main lines in use: 104,700 (2011)
mobile cellular: 10.822 million (2011)
Broadcast media: national public TV broadcaster
2 privately owned companies
national public radio broadcaster
transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007).
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 437 (2012).
Internet users: 249,800 (2009).
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining.
machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments.
petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing.
kept alive in organizations all over the country
music, dance, poetry, wood carving and embroidery.
The alphorn, or the alpenhorn, is a trumpet-like musical instrument made of wood
common form of woodcarving is chip carving
close proximity to the mountains
skiing and mountaineering, Swiss-style wrestling (Schwingen), shooting sessions and Hornussen (a kind of Alpine baseball)
Shooting, tennis, golf, ice hockey, football (soccer), basketball, handball, gliding, paragliding, sailing, swimming, volleyball, floorball, mountain biking and hiking
Fishing is commonplace and curling, horse and dog racing, particularly around St. Moritz is well known
Christian minorities and followers of traditional African beliefs.
Malians are Sunni Muslims who belong to one of two main Sufi brotherhoods
the Quadiriya, which came to West Africa in the 15th century and
the Tijaniya, founded in the 18th century and popularised in Mali during the 19th century.
Importance of Music
Griots or Jalis performed songs for kings and nobles.
Traditional songsters are still around and music remains important in Mali.
It can be heard everywhere
Every year, the famous Festival in the Desert is held in the Saharan oasis of Essakane.
This provides a showcase for Mali’s musical talent.
New Year's Day, 1 January
Labor Day, 1 May
Commemoration Day (anniversary of the overthrow of Ahmed Ben Bella), 19 June
Independence Day, 5 July
Anniversary of the outbreak of the revolution, 1 November
traditional arts of rug-making, pottery, embroidery, and jewelry-making.
Music and dance follow in the Arabic tradition
Arabic music is tied to the storytelling tradition and often recounts tales of love, honor, and family
instruments are the oud, a stringed instrument similar to the lute; small drums held in the lap; and the rhita, or reed flute
National Day (1 August)
New Year's Day (1 January)
Christmas (25 December)
rich tradition in graphic arts
creation of posters, banknotes, and fonts for printing
dominant model of sex roles
reserving the private sphere for women and the public sphere for men
The vocational choices of women and men are still influenced by traditional conceptions of sex roles.
A major public holiday 22 September
commemoration of the overthrow of Moussa Traoré (25 March)
Armed Forces Day (20 January)
Labor Day (1 May)
Africa Day (25 May).
well-known regional festivities
sogobo of the Ségou region
The reroofing of the sacred hut in Kangaba
the sigui , a Dogon festival celebrated every sixty years.
oral literature is extremely rich, varied (proverbs, stories, epic poetry), and well researched
epic tradition (the story of Sunjata)
Malian pottery, sculpture, and textile traditions
In particular bogolanfini, hand-woven cotton bands decorated with dyes and mud and sewn together to make cloths