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Brewing Process - Brew Day

Second Lecture in Applied Craft Brewing - Regis University

Matthew Gubanich

on 14 April 2015

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Transcript of Brewing Process - Brew Day

Mash Tun
Mash Chemistry
Mash Schedules
Vessel Considerations
Tests & Calculations
Runoff & Sparge
Ending the Runoff
Kettle Additions
Vessel Considerations
Purpose of Whirlpool
Physics of Whirlpool
Wort Oxygenation
2-Vessel Systems
Cereal/Mash Cooker
Other Vessels and Technology
3-Vessel Systems
Amylose vs. Amylopectin
Single Infusion Mashing
Alpha Amylase:
67 degrees C
pH 5.2
Beta amylase:
62 degrees C
pH 5.5
Decoction Mashing
Cereal Cooking
Turbid Mashing
Multi-step Infusion Mashing
Higher temperature means less fermentabes and more sugar in the final beer
What to expect from your mash
A sanity check
Understanding Liquor to grist
False Bottoms
Transitioning to Runoff
77C or less!!
The fly sparge and the Party Guile
Fixing a stuck sparge
Don't let it happen
Slow rake
Reset bed
Keep it short
Sacrifice efficiency in favor of flavor
Keep pH low
Times when astringency may be desireable
Boil off
How do we determine the volume of the boil off?

Water brew! You'll need to measure it.
Based on a wort gravity of 15P, and a preboil volume of 50 hl
2-Roller mill
Simple, small, easy to operate
Limited effectiveness
Multi-roller mill
better efficiency
more expensive
more difficult to service
Wet milling
Keep grain husk in tact
Large expensive operation
Requires a team of professionals to service
Calibrating a mill
Using a set of Standard Sieves
Place known amount of malt in top sieve
Shake in consistent, standardized way
mechanized shaker is ideal
Weigh the amount in each screen
Use a gauge to set the mill gaps
Malt Transport and Hydration
Flex Auger
Does not require a loop
Very inexpensive
Damages malt
Maximum incline is about 60 degrees
Grain conveyor
Requires a loop
Dump ports can be opened and closed
Gentle malt treatment with no max incline
Grist Hydration
Methods of Boiling
Boil Length:
Increased boil off
Increased isomerization of alpha acids
Caramelization of sugar
Fructose 110°C, 230°F
Galactose 160°C, 320°F
Glucose 160°C, 320°F
Sucrose 160°C, 320°F
Maltose 180°C, 356°F
A fixed number: Vol/Time.
Plays a roll in gravity calculation:
Kettle/Copper Finings
PVPP (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone)
In fining, the point is to increase the size of the particle, r.
Make a 0.5% solution of fining agent: 0.5g in 250ml water.
Take a boiled wort sample
Split sample into 500ml samples, fine at different rates, 1ml = 10ppm
Agitate and let settle for 10 mins.
Make record of hot break
Decant 100ml of liquid into seal-able vessel
Record clarity of 100ml hot wort samples
Cool by immersion for 10 minutes with occasional agitation
Record appearance of any cold break
Allow to settle for 12 hrs, measure volume of cold break and record
Fermentation aid
Autolyzed yeast!
Direct Fire vs. Steam

No boiler required
Less maintenance potential
Cheaper start-up costs
Higher sustained cost
High boil off
Boiler and steam delivery required
Less caramelization
More surface area
More continuous heating
More efficient
Volatile evaporation
ShoKo 2.0
Stainless vs. Copper
Heat conduction
Material transport
Kettle/WP combo?
Mash Mixer
Mash Pump
Mash Rakes
Back to Stokes Law and particle settling
Only this time, let's try increasing the other variable, the acceleration of the particle
Hot wort filtration
Heat exchanger
Volatile removal and pitching temperature
Directly adding oxygen or air to wort:

Oxygen regulator
Flow meter
Sintered stone
Sterile air filter
With Oxygen: ~15 ppm
With Air: ~6-8 ppm
3 vessel American system:
Mash/Lauter tun
Boil Kettle
3 vessel German system
Mash/Boil Kettle
Lauter Tun
Often a 4th or 5th vessel:
Used to boil adjunct grains
Sometimes known as a mash cooker
May be a dedicated mash tun
Potential Vessels:
Cereal cooker
Mash tun
Lauter tun
Boil kettle
Typical large scale brewhouse may have more than one of each of these.
Preparing for Knockout
CIP Considerations
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
The Pickle Barrel
Cleaning of all components
Heat exchanger
Aeration hoses
Brewery pumps
Cleaning the Fermentors
Clean-in-Place (CIP)
Mix chemicals in tank
CIP Systems
CIP - Step by Step
1. Fully degas the fermentor
2. Thoroughly Rinse Fermentor
3. Preheat fermentor
Short blasts of hot water
Vent tank
4. Add hot water to tank
Measure volume
By flow rate
By place in fermentor
5. Dose with Chemical (PPE!)
6. Run loop for mfg. prescribed time. Disassemble and clean parts
7. Inspect interior of tank
8. Drain Tank
9. Hot water rinse
Short bursts
Check rinse water pH for thoroughness
10. Cool tank
11. Sanitize tank
12. Drain and seal tank
Sheeting vs. Impingement
Knocking Out
Vessel Considerations
Pitching and Yeast
Preparing for Fermentation
Whirlpool: Side first! Bottom second...
Gravity: Can be your friend, build the whirlpool above the HE/Pump
Multi-Stage heat exchangers
Run wort out of terminal valve
Temperature, temperature, temperature!
Heated water can be re-used...
Spray out valves with sanitizer
Factors that Influence ester production in beer:
Increase esters:
High wort gravity (<18P)
Increasing attenuation limit
Reducing wort aeration
Restricting yeast growth
Reduction of yeast motion during fermentation
Decrease esters
Lower gravity
Increased or "adequate" wort aeration
Decreasing attenuation limit
Increased head/hydrostatic pressure during fermentation
Notes on temperature and pitching rates:

The effect of temperature and pitching rate on ester production is still debated, and at best, specific yeast strains behave in different ways from others. Anecdotal evidence shows that temp at lag & exponential phases have different effects than during stationary phase. See Weissbier!
Flow rate
Yorkshire Square
Burton Union
Cylindro-conical Fermentor
2:1 - 3:1
Stand vs. Racking arm
Standard DH/Fining in Fermentor
The Transfer
Fermentor Additions
Methods for cooling beer
Dry Hopping
During or after fermentation?
Preventing infection
Preventing oxidation
Beer geyser!
Biofine Clear
1L per 1-11 hl of beer
Colder = Better
Mix well
1. Upon completion of fermentation, dry hop from top of fermentor.

Push CO2 through spray ball
Positive pressure
2. Upon completion of dry hopping (1-4 days), crash beer
3. Once beer is cold (31-33 F), fine with fining of choice (Biofine or Isinglass)
4. Thoroughly mix beer

Push CO2 through racking arm
Raise temperature a couple degrees (convection)
5. Once thoroughly mixed, drop back to 32 degrees
6. Fining takes between 3-7 days once cold
Determine dosing rate using same method as with copper finings
Two competing factors during cooling
Sudden temperature change vs. slow ramp down
When to ramp down, time or gravity
Incorporating a diacetyl rest
Lagering in a fermentor
Capping the fermentor
Other Vessel Considerations
Full transcript