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Transcript of OXYGEN
•Makes up about 21% of the air we breathe
•Oxygen makes up 9/10 of the mass of the oceans
•Oxygen makes up half of the mass of material in the earth’s crust
•Most minerals are compounds of oxygen
•Together silicon and oxygen make up three quarters of the mass of the earth’s crust Ozone
•Consists of three oxygen atoms joined together in a V shape
•Poisonous, colorless, tasteless gas with a distinct chlorine like smell
•In the troposphere Ozone is a pollutant
•In the stratosphere Ozone acts as a shield protecting the planet
•There is a natural level of ozone in the air we breathe
•Ozone is harmful to the lungs •Without the ozone layer we would be exposed to dangerous radiation
•CFC used in aerosols destroys ozone
•Ozone is used to purify drinking water and sanitize swimming pools
•Ozone can be condensed into a blue liquid or frozen into a violet-black colored solid •The oxygen in the earth’s atmosphere comes from the photosynthesis of plants and has built up for millions of years
•The burning of fossil fuels has almost no effects on the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere
•Ozone can be produced as a result of city traffic Smog
Oxidation of exhaust gases a brown gas that hangs over some of the world’s major cities
Often happens with oxygen combines with nitrogen in the atmosphere Antioxidants
Antioxidants are foods that neutralize free radicals in the body, the most common being oxygen. When oxygen loses some of its electrons and becomes “radicalized” it can pose a danger to DNA and to other parts of our bodies by stripping them of electrons. These foods act as antioxidants by neutralizing these free radicals, and preventing them from doing your body harm. Photosynthesis:
Although this is something I am sure we are all familiar with, I would like to draw attention to the role of oxygen. The chemical equation that models the process of Photosynthesis is 6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) C6H12O6 + 6O2 . All of the compounds in this equation involve oxygen, making it a vital part of the process. All of the plant matter we eat requires oxygen in order to be produced. Cosmic Element
• Oxygen is the 3rd most abundant element in the universe.
• Stars burn to hydrogen to from helium, to form carbon, and then carbon burns and converts to Oxygen.
• Oxygen will burn when the temperature is a billion degrees in space.
• Mars atmosphere contains .15% Oxygen and Venus has a little less. Oxygen is produced on these planets by ultraviolet radiation acting on other molecules. Human Element
• The human body bones have 28% Oxygen.
• The human tissue has 16% Oxygen.
• The total amount of Oxygen in body is approximately 43 kilograms and makes up 60% of total weight, but it varies.
• Oxygen is essential for all forms of life since it is a constituent of DNA.
• The Fe atom at the centre of the hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs.
• One Liter of blood will dissolve 200 cubic cm of Oxygen. Element of Surprise
• The oxygen gas of the atmosphere is slightly enriched in oxygen-18, although pants release oxygen with the same ratio as that in the oceans. The reason is that oxygen-breathing life forms consume the oxygen-16 at a slightly greater rate.
• The ratio of oxygen -18 to oxygen-16 in the world’s oceans has varied slightly over geological time and this has left an imprint on parts of the environment, providing evidence of past climates.
• Analyzing the oxygen-18:oxygen-16 ratio in locked up polar ice-caps reveals the cycle of global cooling and warming that has characterized past half million years with its five ice ages. The ratio of the two isotopes in the remains of more recent skeletons has been used to show the regions from which people originally came.
• The nearer a person is to the Equator, the more oxygen-18 there is in their enamel of their teeth. Chemical Element
• Oxygen is a non-metallic element and a member of group 16 of the periodic table of the elements.
• It exists as a colorless, odorless, tow atom gas, which condenses to a pale blue liquid with magnetic properties.
• The reason for this strange magnetism is the unique chemical bonding between the two oxygen atoms, in which two of the 67 bonding electrons of O2 refuse to pair up as in normal chemical bonds, and these unpaired electrons generate a magnetic field.
• Oxygen is reactive and will from oxides with all other elements except helium, neon, argon, and krypton.
• It is moderately soluble in water at 20 Celsius.
• 30 cubic centimeters will dissolve per liter of water.
• There are three naturally occurring isptopes of oxygen: oxygen-16 accounts for 99.76%, oxygen-17 for mere 0.04%, and oxygen-18 for 0.2%. None are radioactive.
• Because oxygen-18 is 12% heavier than oxygen -16, it can influence the behavior of water. • It has stayed steady at this level since then, although there is some evidence that it may have been higher than this at certain times in the past.
• Although plants and animals carry out the reverse process of converint oxygen to carbon dioxide, the average oxygen atom now only takes part in this cycle once every 3000 years. • Among the most reactive of all the elements.
• Nearly all the rocks of the Earth are compounds containing oxygen.
• Most common element by volume or mass. 1/5 of molecules one breathes in are oxygen. 12 trillion tons of oxygen in the air. It is transparent meaning it has no color, taste or smell.
• Readily combines with a wide variety of other elements.
• At times, oxygen reacts with a fuel becoming an oxide which turns into a solid and in other cases, it turns into gas. Reaction: burning because it releases heat energy. Many machines are powered by the reaction of oxygen with fuels harnessing and converting the chemical energy to movement energy.
• Oxygen reacts with most metals.
• FORMULA: O2 – normally occurs as a molecule with 3 atoms: chemical symbol= O3, ozone, able to shield living things from the harmful ultraviolet radiation of the Sun. • OXYGEN IN THE AIR: makes up to 21% of the atmosphere by volume. Weight of O2 helps create the air pressure on the Earth’s surface.
• OXYGEN IN WATER: oxygen is a much more massive element than hydrogen. It makes up about nine-tenths of the mass of the oceans. Oxygen in the compound water is very strongly bonded to the hydrogen atoms.
• Oxygen also occurs as free oxygen molecules dissolved in water • The Oxygen Cycle: a continual exchange of oxygen between the atmosphere and the water, the plants and animals and mineral matter. Begins with the reservoir of CO2 in the air. The Process of Photosynthesis occurs using CO2 and H2O from the soil to produce cellulose -> plants are made. Releases oxygen has into the air. Animals use oxygen in the atmosphere for respiration, oxidizing the sugars in their food to provide energy and releasing carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is then released back to the atmosphere when dead tissue decays. A slower cycle occurs when mineral matter is oxidized formation of rocks. • KEY FACTS ABOUT OXYGEN:
-a colorless gas, chemical symbol O
-most plentiful element at the surface of the Earth
-Essential for breathing
-Has no taste, no smell
-Makes up 21% of the atmosphere
-Essential for converting food into energy
-Atomic number 8, atomic is weight about 16
-Part of the tissues of all living organisms
-Forms the minerals that make rocks
-Combines with hydrogen to make water
-Important for burning fuels
-Found in two gaseous forms O2 and O3 (ozone) Element of History
•In 1624 when the 1st submarine was used, Cornelius Drebbel a dutch inventor produced Oxygen with out knowing it by gently heating saltpeter (KNO3) and then it was not discovered until another 150 years.
•In the 17th century scientist as Robert Hooke, Mikhail Lomonosov, Ole Borch, and Pierre Bayen all produced Oxygen but did not realize it.
•People who later got credit for Oxygen were Joseph Priestley, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and Antoine Lavoisier. Oxygen is the most common chemical element by mass in biosphere, air, sea, and land. Oxygen allows photosynthesis and respiration to occur, which are important to all living things, including plants and animals. Oxygen is used as a supplement in medicines that increase oxygen levels in blood and also tendency for blood to flow to diseased lungs, which gives the heart a significantly easier time functioning. Oxygen therapy used to treat emphysema, pneumonia, several heart disorders, several disorders that increase pulmonary artery pressure, and every single disease that weakens the body’s ability to take and utilize gaseous oxygen. Oxygen used in space suits to surround the user’s body with pressurized air. Space suits use almost completely pure oxygen to keep the normal blood pressure of gaseous oxygen. Scuba Divers and submariners use normal pressure oxygen that is artificially supplied to allow them to breathe beneath water. Mountain climbers and flyers occasionally have supplied oxygen. In all planes however, there are oxygen masks that are released and used only in a case of an emergency to allow the passenger riders to breathe. Oxygen bars in Las Vegas, Nevada, Japan, and California allow people to get more exposure to oxygen for a price. Athletes, especially American footballers, use oxygen masks to boost and maintain performance. Oxygen is part of essential compounds (acids, bases, organic, inorganic) such as water (H2O, gaseous oxygen (O2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), Glucose (C6H12O6), and so forth. Antoine Lavoisier
Established it as an element
• Thought that all acids had to contain oxygen
• Also claims credit for the discovery of oxygen
• "Etymologically, oxygen means ‘acid-former’. The word was coined in French in the late 1780s as oxygène, based on Greek oxús ‘sharp, acid’ (a descendant of the same Indo-European base, *ak- ‘be pointed’, as produced English acid, acute, etc) and the Greek suffix-genes, denoting ‘formation, creation’ (a descendant of the Indo-European base *gen- ‘produce’, which has given English a vast range of words, from gene to genocide)." Carl Scheele:
• Claimed credit for discovery of oxygen
• Experimented previous to Priestley but is rarely given the credit he diserves
• Discovered what he called “fire air” before 1773
•he produced it in many ways these include
1) Reaction involving the heating of HgO
2) he reacted nitric acid with potash KOH or K2CO3 this formed KNO3. He then distilled the residue with sulfuric acid produced both NO2 and O2. The NO2 was absorbed by limewater Ca(OH)2, leaving oxygen as a product.
3) Heating ofsilver carbonate ,Mercuric carbonate, then absorbing CO2
• Discovered oxygen, chlorine, manganese
• Analyzed minerals, but worked mostly on gasses
• Funny fact: did experiments on oxen blatter Joseph Priestley
Usually credited for the discovery of oxygen
• Heated HgO to produce O2 and Hg
• Called his air 'dephlogisticated air'
• After sampling his air:"[My] breast felt particularly light and easy for some time afterwards...... Who can tell, but that, in time, this pure air may become a fashionable article of luxury. Hitherto only two mice and myself have had the privilege of breathing it." (A Short History of Chemistry, J. R. Partington, 3rd edition, (1957))
• Used a 12 inch glass, similar to a magnifying glass
• Experimented on August 1st 1774
• Worked on gasses, electricity, and made machines that would lead way to the modern production of jewelry
He noted a candle burned more brightly in oxygen
also, a rat lived longer than it normally would Oxygen is the source of energy…10% of energy comes from food and water
90% of energy comes from O2
There are different levels of oxygen that living organisms need in order to survive. The blood starts to be oxygenated in the lungs. (The CO2 is being replaced with O2)
O2 helps in breathing and the metabolism in the human body
The brain takes up 20% of total body O2…. (Needs more oxygen compared to the other parts in the body)
•People depend on O2, ex. Can effect on people’s learning ability.
O2 can also affect the way people think, react and learning abilities, because of the brain.
Without O2 our brain cells would die quickly, and people without O2 would only survive for a few minutes. As people age O2 deficiency increases
O2 helps with the cardiac muscle, strengthens it. Some heart attacks occur because of not enough O2 being placed to the heart.
The more oxygen in the cardiac muscle the lower resting heart rate.
Helps with the body, in vitamins and minerals, amino acids, proteins and other nutrients.
Oxygen tanks can often be dangerous, but they are legal for people to have in their homes. Oxygen treatments:
When the body doesn’t have enough O2, treatments recover all the O2 throughout the body system. There are many highlights/ benefits when O2 is at the proper level in the body system.
Helping with the absorption of vitamins, minerals, protiens….
Resting heart rate is lower
Blood pressure is lower
Circulation • Named 33 elements used today
• Debunked phlogiston theory (previous theory regarding combustion and breathing)
• Used this as a hypothesis but disproved it and created his own in depth theories
• Created his own theories about oxygen and published them in a book : Traité élémentaire de chemie in 1789
• Studied conservation of mass, in france this is refered to as Lavoisier’s law Phlogiston Theory
What is Phlogiston?
A non-existant element thought to be realeased durring combustion reactions
The word itself means inflamable or burnt up
Phlogiston theory was based on aristotles work but had an added opinion on chemical changes
The theory claimed that flames extinguish because of phlogiston; the residue after burning of charcoal is almost pure phlogiston
Mice die in airtight spaces because air becomes full of phlogiston
When heated, metals are restored due to phlogiston transfer
These ideas were considered to be true untill Lavosier noted that the idea of phlogiston was only a hypothesis
This theory was proved wrong by Lavosier and many other scientists at the time • Oxygen gas makes up a 5th of the atmosphere.
• When we breathe in Oxygen it reacts with energy stores in our bodies to provide the warmth and muscular action that keeps us alive.
• We breathe out carbon dioxide that is captured by plants, with the help of sunlight it is turned into carbohydrates.
• Oxygen has the capacity to oxidize other substances.
• Oxygen can kill by oxidizing organisms such as certain bacteria.
• Oxygen can convert metals such as iron into useless rust.
• Too much Oxygen can poison your brain.
• It is better for divers to use Nitrox, which is air with boosted Oxygen content when diving 10 meters into water.
• Premature babies used to be kept in Oxygen-rich incubators until they found out it was blinding them.
30% Oxygen in Oxygen masks is given to patients whose lungs or heart are impaired in some way. • If Oxygen were below 17% in the Earth we would not be able to breath.
• If Oxygen were above 25% in the Earth all organic material would be highly flammable.
• The Apollo flight burned down because fire started in the cabin due to Oxygen.
• A project done in Arizona came to a stop when 8 people were sealed in a glass ecosystem to see if they could sustain life on the Moon or Mars. In a month they were gasping for breath as the air fell below 17%. Economic Element
• All Oxygen used industrially comes from the air, 100 tons being extracted every year.
• Oxygen is created from liquefied air from which nitrogen distils off preferentially leaving liquid Oxygen behind. Then liquid Oxygen is shipped as liquid in cylinders and tankers.
• One liter of liquid Oxygen is equal to 840 Liters of Oxygen gas.
• It is used in metal cutting and welding or for medical purposes.
• Another method of producing Oxygen is to pass a stream of clean, dry air through a bed of zeolite molecular sieves which absorb the nitrogen, giving a stream of gas that is 90-93% Oxygen.
• When the zeolite is saturated with nitrogen, reducing the pressure, which allows the nitrogen to escape, regenerates it. While this is going on, the flow of air is directed through a second bed of refreshed zeolite so that the process will deliver a continuous supply of Oxygen.
• Newer methods use a ceramic membrane based on zirconium oxide through which Oxygen gas will preferentially diffuse, forced through it either by high pressure or by an electric current • Oxygen gas is produced for steel-making, chemical industry, hospitals, water treatment, rocket launches, and metal cutting.
• Injecting Oxygen through a special high-pressure lance into molten iron removes the chief impurities of sulfur and carbon, converting the iron to steel, and as it does this it raises the temperature of the metal to around 1700 Celsius.
• Cutting through even the toughest steel can be done quickly with an Oxygen-acetylene torch whose heat from a burning mixture of the two gases is sufficient to raise the temperature to 3100 Celsius, high enough to melt the steel.
• In the chemical industry Oxygen is reacted with ethylene to form ethylene oxide, which is then turned into materials ranging from antifreeze to polyester bottles and fabric. • The water in rivers and lakes needs to have a regular supply of Oxygen, if it does not have enough Oxygen life in the water cannot survive.
• When neither the plants that live in water, nor the slow absorption of Oxygen from the atmosphere, can provide enough Oxygen, the biochemical Oxygen demand can be met by bubbling Oxygen gas through the water; this is done rejuvenate polluted rivers and to treat sewage.
• An emergency supply of Oxygen automatically becomes available for the passengers in an aircraft when the pressure drops suddenly.
• This Oxygen is stored not as Oxygen gas but as the chemical sodium chlorate. In an emergency, the Oxygen masks above each seat are activated by a small detonation, which mixes the chlorate with iron filings, and the two chemicals react to release the gas.