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History of The Atom
Transcript of History of The Atom
Democritus of Adbera
Life Span: 460 B.C - 370 B.C
Contribution: He actually developed the atomic theory, and he expanded the atomic theory of Leucippus.
His Atomic Theory:
All matter is made up of small indestructible units called atoms.
Empty space or void is necessary for their movement.
Atoms vary in shape, position and order but not in quality.
Life Span: 1766 - 1844
Occupations: English chemist and pioneer meteorologist.
Every element is made of extremely small particles called atoms.
In a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged, atoms cant be created or destroyed.
A compound is formed by 2 or more different atoms
All atoms of a element are alike
Life Span: 384 B.C.E -322 B.C.E
Occupations: He was reffered to "The Philosopher" and made contributions to logic, mathematics, physics, biology and more.
Contributions: Aristotle believed in four elements, air, water, earth and fire. He also believed you could cut a form of matter in half and you would always have a piece of that matter.
Experiment: He didn't have experiments but he had theories. (one was the theory of the four elements)
Life Span: 1856 - 1940
Contributions: Found the charge to mass ratio and that particles were a universal component of matter
Experiment: The cathode-ray tube experiment
Life Span: 1868 - 1953
Contributions: Millikan proved Thomson's hypothesis that the mass of an electron is at least 1,000 times smaller than the atom.
Life Span: 1871 - 1937
Contributions: Rutherford updated Thomson's Plum-pudding model. He also discovered that the atoms mass is mostly in the nucleus and that the electrons are in a fixed orbit.
Life Span: 1855 - 1962
Contributions: First to use Planck's Quantum Energy Theory. He thought the nucleus was surrounded by electrons in orbits at different energy levels.
Life Span: 1901 - 1976
Occupations: Lecturer in theoretical physics at the University of Copenhagen & then appointed professor at the University of Leipzig.
Contributions: He said we couldn't assume the planetary orbits postulate by Niels Bohr exist because you cant always say where an electron is at a given time or follow it in its orbit.
Life Span: 1891 - 1974
Occupations: Worked in Cavendish Laboratory of Cambridge from 1919-1935.
Contributions: He identified the neutron and discovered it had the same mass as a proton but no charge.
Experiment: He did calculations to find the exact measurement of the neutron
Life Span: 1887 - 1961
Occupations: Austrian Theoretical Physicist
Contributions: Schrodinger contributed to the wave theory of matter, he introduced the Schrodinger Equation to show the behavior of the system by a wave equation.
In 1904 Thomson created the plum-pudding model to show how he thought the atom looked like.
Experiment: " Millikan's Oil-drop Experiment. This experiment measured the charge on an electron using his oil-drop apparatus.
Experiment: Alpha Particle Gold Foil Experiment.
Model: In his model the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and the electrons are floating around in orbits
Werner Heisenberg worked with Niels Bohr from 1924-1925 at the University of Copenhagen.
Democritus of Adbera
Experiment : He didn't really have an experiment but he was disappointed when he visited Athens to find support for his theories but didn't find any.
Model: His model is just a simple atom.
The Electron Cloud Model
Starting from here...
& getting to this!
Life span: 1877 - 1945
Occupations: Chemist in the laboratory of brewery
Contributions: Aided Rutherford
Aston was the first person to observe isotopes , which then led Rutherford to predict the existence of the neutron. He invented the mass spectrograph.
Experiment: With his invention ( Mass spectrograph) he got to separate the isotopes of neon.
This model shows his theory of elements being rearranged after a chemical reaction.
In 1913 Thomson discovered isotopes using his invention of the Mass spectrograph.
Rutherford discovered Gamma Rays, Beta Radiation & Alpha Radiation
Gamma Rays- have no charge and could penetrate several cm of lead
Beta Radiation- Negative Charge
Alpha Radiation- Positive Charge
Schrodingers Cat Experiment
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