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The Road to Revolution

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Jordan Phelps

on 30 November 2015

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Transcript of The Road to Revolution

Section 1
Trouble on the Frontier
The Road to Revolution

Section 2 & 3
The Colonists Resist
Tighter Control

Section 4
The War Begins
Before the Revolution...
Several things are taking place that will inevitably lead to the American Revolution.

Conflicts in the colonies between the British Colonists (Mostly Americans) and the French & Indians raise tensions.
French & Indian War
breaks out on the frontier in 1754.

British and the Colonists fight against the French and several Native American tribes.

French and Indian War

This war between Britain and France ended with the victorious British deeply in debt and demanding more revenue from the colonies. With the defeat of the French, the colonies became less dependent on Britain for protection.
Proclamation of 1763

This prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains. While Britain did not intend to harm the colonists, many colonists took offense at this order.

Competing Empires
• Middle of the 1700s, France and Britain controlled large areas of North America

• Both wanted to increase the area they controlled.

• These ambitions collided on the frontier and eventually led to war.

Native Americans
Native Americans
• Native Americans lived on most of the territory claimed by France and Britain.

• French did not threaten to seize Native American lands.

• British settlers conflicted with the Native Americans.

• By the 1740s, British settlers were pushing into the Ohio River valley #812

• France had already claimed this land.

Native Americans
The French & Indian War Begins
• In 1753, the French began building forts to back their claims

The French and Indian War Begins
• Governor of Virginia decided to send a militia led by
George Washington
to order the French to leave.

is a force made up of civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army
• The French rejected Washington’s warning, and began building forts along the Ohio

• British do the same.

• Washington defeated the French in a few small battles, but would be forced to surrender Fort Necessity.

The Albany Congress
• Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania believed the colonies had to work together as one to succeed.

• To make that point he published a picture of a snake chopped into pieces with the warning “Join, or Die.”
Early British Defeats
• British Generals from England led the colonial soldiers in battle.
More British Defeats

• The French dominated the first few years of the war.

The Seven Years War
• May 1756, Britain declared war on France, marking the beginning of the
Seven Years’ War

• French and Indian war was a part of the Seven Years War.

• British and French fought in both Europe and the Americas (First "World War")
The British Turn the Tide
The British Turn the Tide

• 1757:
William Pitt
became British Prime Minister.

• Pitt appointed top generals who had genuine military talent to lead in the colonies.
• 1758: British capture several french forts.

• Took Fort Duquesne & renamed it
Fort Pitt
(Later city of Pittsburgh)

• These and other victories led the Iroquois to side with the British.

The Battle of Quebec

• After losing Quebec, France could no longer defend the rest of its North American territory.
Treaty of Paris
• 1763, Britain and France signed the
Treaty of Paris
, ending the French & Indian War
Treaty of Paris
British Territorial Gains
Ohio River Valley
Florida (Side deal with Spain)
Treaty of Paris
French & Indian war was offically over, but fighting didn't stop.

Ottawa Indians led by
continued fighting colonists on the frontier.

Pontiac's war lasted for 2 years, until British forces stopped him.
King George III
of England wanted to avoid future wars with Native Americans (Too Expensive)

He made the
Proclamation of 1763
, which banned colonial settlement
west of the Appalachian Mts.

Forced many to move back east.

This angered the colonists
Conflict with Native Americans
British Rule Leads to Conflict
Although different than those living in Britain, the colonists considered themselves loyal British subjects.
Felt disenfranchised after the F&I War because of burdens placed on them.
Proclamation of 1763
High Taxes (to pay off war debts)
British Acts / Taxes
The Sugar Act
(1764)- Import tax on sugar & Molasses.

The Quartering Act
(1765)- Required colonists to let British soldiers live in their homes, feed them, and give them supplies.

The Stamp Act
(1765)- Required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London.

Declaratory Act
(1766) - Gave Parliament total authority over the colonies.
Townshend Act
(1767) - Tax on all imports brought into the colonies

Writs of Assistance
(1767)- British officials could search & seize property at any time.

Tea Act
(1773)- Taxed tea purchased in the colonies; could only drink tea from the British East India Company.
Colonial Protests
Colonists were angered by the series of acts

Many began to organize protests & boycotts

Patrick Henry
of Virginia spoke out against King George's taxes
"Give me liberty or give me death!"

Some protests actually worked, & got the Stamp, Quartering, & Townshend Acts repealed.

Some protests ended in violence
The Boston Massacre
Crowd of colonists surrounded British soldiers in Boston
Protested the Quartering Act.
Crowd threw snowballs & rocks at the soldiers
"Someone" shouted FIRE and the soldiers shot at the crowd.
Crispus Attucks
- an African American sailor, was killed
First death of the Revolution
Committees of Correspondence
Colonial leaders wanted to keep colonists informed

Samuel Adams
, cousin of John Adams, established the
Committees of Correspondence
to spread word of British actions.

United colonies against the British through pamphlets & letters.
The Boston Tea Party
One of the most famous protests of the early revolution.

Protest against the Tea Act.

Members of the
Sons of Liberty
boarded a British East India Company ship late at night, disguised as Native Americans.

Threw 342 cases of tea into Boston Harbor, worth thousands of dollars.
Approximately $1,700,000 worth of tea in today's money

The Intolerable Acts
King George III was angered by the Boston Tea Party.

He convinced Parliament to take tough action.

The Intolerable Acts
did several things.
Placed Boston under
martial law
Military rule (soldiers everywhere)
Closed the port of Boston
Trials for British officials moved to Britain
Shut down Massachusetts colonial governments
The Colonies Unite
Committees of Correspondence organizes a meeting to figure out what colonies should do to help Boston.

First Continental Congress
met in Philadelphia in 1774.
Some of these members included:
George Washington & Patrick Henry of VA
John & Sam Adams of MA

Decided to begin training
(just in case)

Militias began to stockpile weapons.

Called for new boycotts of British goods.
The First Contiental Congress
Lexington & Concord
were storing weapons in Concord.

British troops were sent to confiscate them.

Paul Revere
at night to warn the minutemen #TheBritishAreComing!

77 colonists met the 700 British at Lexington.

No one knows who shot first, but it officially marked the beginning of the Revolutionary War. #ShotHeardRoundTheWorld

Larger battle took place at Concord later on

400 minutement forced the British to retreat to Boston.

300 British were killed or wounded.
The Second Continental Congress
Lexington & Concord mark the first official battles of the American Revolution.

Soon after,
George Washington
will be chosen to lead the
Continental Army
in the war.

From this point on, colonists are forced to choose which side they are on:
The Patriots
The Loyalists
The Albany Congress
Meeting in Albany, New York.
Colonial leaders met to come up with a strategy to defend against the French.
Hoped for support from Iroquois Indians
Invited but didn't come.
Representatives from each colony agreed to work with one another to fight the French.
*Important: This is one of the first times the colonies ALL worked together as a single entity.

• Most were not familiar with the fighting conditions in North America.

• (Redcoats make easy targets in the forest)

General Edward Braddock's
force was wiped out at
Fort Duquesne
in 1755.

Disaster at Fort Duquesne
Didn't usually listen to colonial soldiers.
British Suffered heavy losses
Crucial for winning the war.

, the capital of
New France.

• In September 1757, approximately 4,000 British soldiers defeated 4,500 French soldiers.
The French had no chance of winning the war.

Virginia Colony also claimed the Ohio River valley.
• Native Americans also lost a great deal.
• Without French help, the Native Americans could not stop British settlers from moving on their lands.
• France lost almost all of its North American possessions to Britain.

Ceded (gave) Louisiana Territory to Spain.
- a formal agreement between two or more countries.
Why it Matters
The Colonists helped win the French & Indian War for Britain.
New Territories were secured
Colonists wanted to begin to settle Ohio River Valley.
King George of Britain began imposing tighter restrictions on the colonists.
Colonists began to resist British rule.
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