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Malaria | Health Specialist Presentation

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Aqeel AL

on 22 June 2014

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Transcript of Malaria | Health Specialist Presentation

MALARIA
by Aqeel AL, M. D.
Malaria Introduction
infectious disease caused by the parasites called
transmitted by female anopheles mosquito
in Medieval Italian, 'malaria' means 'bad air'
re-emerging as the Number 1 infectious killers and Number 1 priority tropical disease

Four common species of Plasmodium include:
Works Cited
http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=0&relation_id=0&disease_id=85&page_no=1
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Malaria/understandingMalaria/Pages/cause.aspx
http://www.malariasite.com/malaria/history_parasite.htm
http://www.medicinenet.com/malaria/article.htm#what_is_malaria
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/malaria/article_em.htm
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/malaria-disease-symptoms-causes-treatment.html
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/malaria/DS00475/DSECTION=prevention
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria
http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jwho02e/3.html#Jwho02e.3
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/stellent/groups/corporatesite/@msh_publishing_group/documents/video/WTDV026685.swf
Transmission & Attainment
transmitted through female anopheles mosquito

human blood nourishes mosquito eggs

female mosquito has a specialized body part to penetrate the skin

average lifespan is 2 - 3 weeks, lays 30 - 150 eggs every 2 - 3 days

commonly found during early mornings, or night time, breed in natural water collections
Epidemiology & Prognosis
WHO states 219 million cases of malaria in 2010 resulting in 660,000 deaths, equivalent to 2000 deaths every day
the majority of cases, 65%, occur in children who are under 15 years old
Epidemiology
good; most recover with no problems, unless infected with
which have fair to poor outcomes, also with infants and pregnant females, unless treated early in infection
Prognosis
Prevention
• reducing exposure to mosquitoes in general

• spraying your home, treating your home's walls and bed net with insecticide

spraying clothing and skin, contains permethrin, it for clothing, while sprays containing DEET can be used on skin

• covering your skin during active mosquito times
Signs & Symptoms
1. Uncomplicated Malaria:

• the cold phase
• the hot phase
• the sweating phase

• chills
• fever
• nausea and vomiting
• headache
• general discomfort
• body aches
2. Complicated Malaria:

occurs with low immunity
should be treated quickly
pregnancy may be disrupt

infection results in bodily failures, including:

• severe anemia
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
• cardiovascular shock
• low blood sugar levels
Anti-malarial drugs include:






chloroquine is effective in all cases of and infections and in cases of sensitive infection

choice of drug depends on species of and risk of drug-resistance in area where malaria was obtained

most medications are available only in tablet or pill form
Treatment
Plasmodia
Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium malariae

Plasmodium ovale
P. falciparum
P
falciparum or P. knowlesi
• chloroquine
• atovaquone
• mefloquine
• quinine
vivax, ovale
malariae
Plasmodium
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/stellent/groups/corporatesite/@msh_publishing_group/documents/video/WTDV026685.swf
Animation Link
malarial relapse
• quinidine
• doxycycline
• clindamycin
• artesunate
P. falciparum
Full transcript