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Malaria | Health Specialist Presentation
Transcript of Malaria | Health Specialist Presentation
by Aqeel AL, M. D.
infectious disease caused by the parasites called
transmitted by female anopheles mosquito
in Medieval Italian, 'malaria' means 'bad air'
re-emerging as the Number 1 infectious killers and Number 1 priority tropical disease
Four common species of Plasmodium include:
Transmission & Attainment
transmitted through female anopheles mosquito
human blood nourishes mosquito eggs
female mosquito has a specialized body part to penetrate the skin
average lifespan is 2 - 3 weeks, lays 30 - 150 eggs every 2 - 3 days
commonly found during early mornings, or night time, breed in natural water collections
Epidemiology & Prognosis
WHO states 219 million cases of malaria in 2010 resulting in 660,000 deaths, equivalent to 2000 deaths every day
the majority of cases, 65%, occur in children who are under 15 years old
good; most recover with no problems, unless infected with
which have fair to poor outcomes, also with infants and pregnant females, unless treated early in infection
• reducing exposure to mosquitoes in general
• spraying your home, treating your home's walls and bed net with insecticide
spraying clothing and skin, contains permethrin, it for clothing, while sprays containing DEET can be used on skin
• covering your skin during active mosquito times
Signs & Symptoms
1. Uncomplicated Malaria:
• the cold phase
• the hot phase
• the sweating phase
• nausea and vomiting
• general discomfort
• body aches
2. Complicated Malaria:
occurs with low immunity
should be treated quickly
pregnancy may be disrupt
infection results in bodily failures, including:
• severe anemia
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
• cardiovascular shock
• low blood sugar levels
Anti-malarial drugs include:
chloroquine is effective in all cases of and infections and in cases of sensitive infection
choice of drug depends on species of and risk of drug-resistance in area where malaria was obtained
most medications are available only in tablet or pill form
falciparum or P. knowlesi