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Transcript of Fluency PD
Lillian Bonet https://blackboard.newpaltz.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_4_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_58391_1%26url%3D History Issue 6 Dimensions Fluency Scale Some Interventions Article Discussion: Samuels How'd we do? References Introduction Agenda: What is Fluency? Assessment Six Dimension Fluency Scale Intervention Repeat/Dramatic Readings with Poetry Article Discussion
Feedback Samuels What is Fluency? Assessment Why did we choose the Samuels article? 1.Compare your definition of fluency before and after reading the article.
2. What is Samuel’s justification for repeated reading? Do you agree? Why or why not?
3. How could you incorporate repeated reading into your classroom? "accuracy of word recognition and reading speed” (Samuels 1979) "reading with meaningful expression and automaticity" (Rasinski 2009) James Good word decoder
High verbal intelligence
Can listen and understand Cannot understand what he reads on his own! Why? Words correct per minute (wcpm) was used to evaluate Oral reading fluency
Decisions were made based off of these results:
To identify students who may be academically at risk
Place students in remedial and special education programs
Monitor instructional programs
Predict performance on high-stake assessments Some say wcpm is an indicator of good word decoding and understanding.
What do we think? Wcpm only takes into account accuracy and rate of reading. Rate Accuracy Prosody Comprehension How quickly is the student reading the text? Alarming Research & Statistics: "the ability to read text quickly, accurately, with proper phrasing and expression, thereby reflecting the ability to simultaneously decode and comprehend" (Valencia 2010) Is the student reading the words correctly? Reading with expression: What emotion is the student using to read the text? Can the child understand what he is reading? (Valencia 2010) Valencia, S. W., Smith, A. T., Reece, A. M., Li, M., Using wcpm benchmarks may misidentify a large percentage of students who are low achieving according to norm-referenced tests.
False positives and false negatives -children don't get the help they need; others get help they do not need.
Measuring fluency in one minute cannot account for comprehension.
12%-24% of students identified by DIBELS and 14%-27% identified by Hasbrouk and Tindal could be classified as false negatives ; these students would not get the help they needed. Wixson, K. K., & Newman, H. (2010). Oral reading fluency assessment: Issues of construct, criterion, and consequential validity. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(3), 270-291. doi:10.1598/RRQ.45.3.1 Rasinski, T., Homan, S., & Biggs, M. (2009). Teaching reading fluency to struggling readers: Method, materials, and evidence. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2/3), 192-204. doi:10.1080/10573560802683622 Reading Teacher, 50(5), 376. Samuels, S. (1997). The method of repeated readings. reading assessment and instruction: Helping every child succeed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2011). Strategies for Reutzel and Cooter's (2011) "six effective instructional principles to guide teachers in providing effective fluency instruction" (p. 200). Repetition
Explicit Instruction and feedback
Support or assistance
Appropriately challenging materials Assisted and Partner reading
Singing as Reading
Closed-Caption Television Rasinski(2009) believes a, "more authentic approach involves the use of materials that are meant to be read orally and performed for an audience" (203). English Language Learners learn the language by being consistently exposed to the language.
Rereadings will allow the students to master word recognition leaving room for comprehension development.
Closed- Captioning provides meaningful material and models of fluent readers. The Bonet & Baez Intervention Our intervention utilizes poetry for repeat and dramatic reading. Middle/High School Level I. Briefly introduce poetry: emotion on paper II. Come with Me
Come with me and watch the full moon rise wordless above the pines
At first unborn behind the dense heart of evergreen gathered in the yard
Sweetly and soon glints of light poke through and scatter here and there
Up she rises slowly as darkened branches hold her close
Until they cradle her among the highest boughs -silhouettes against her shining face
At last they let her go and she is free to dance across the sleepy sky
The brilliant sphere looks back and gives a gift of silver edging
To the loving arms she leaves behind
copyright K.Baez Model the poem for the students. III. Go back and ask questions:
Any words we don't know?
What's the poem about?
What's the mood of the poem?
How did I read it? IV. Have your students read the poem with you. be hot. Reading Teacher, 65(8), 516-522. doi:10.1002/TRTR.01077 Rasinski, T. V. (2012). Why reading fluency should Rate, Accuracy, Prosody, Comprehension After you have rated her on each dimension, write justifications as to why you rated Ellie the way you did.
Once you have added your justifications, turn to a partner to compare and discuss your results.
Were there similarities? Differences?
How did you interpret the assessment? Our turn! Assess Ellie on her reading fluency using the Six Dimensions of Fluency Scale. We will place you into two groups according to your certification.
You will receive a lovely poem, courtesy of Kjersti, that you will perform for the class.
You can use any methods you would like to prepare yourself for this performance.
Have fun! Poem reflection What did your group do to prepare your performance?
What steps did you take?
Did anything change as you spent more time with the poem? V. Ask more questions. What did they discover the second time they read it? (Rasinski 2009)