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Plant diversity

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Akim Munro

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Plant diversity

Plants colonized land about 430 million years ago, with this new habitat many new challenges arise... Plant Diversity Nonvascular Plants
(bryophytes) The most primitive type of land plants Seedless Vascular plants - Have specialized conducting tissues to conduct water and dissolved substances
- Use spores for reproduction and propagation
- 2 phyla Angiosperms (flowering plants) Gymnosperms -first seed bearing plants
-Seeds provide a protective covering to the plant embryo as well as a nutrient supply
-seeds remain dormant (inactive) until environmental conditions are favourable, the seed then germinates
- most gymnosperms are ever green (keep their leaves all year long)
- 4 phyla of gymnosperms Preventing water loss Plants on land are susceptible to drying out through evaporation

The cuticle - a waxy layer on the outer surface keeps water in the plant Reproduction Reproductive cells in aquatic environments are not susceptible to drying out Plants develop spores with hard outer layers as well as seeds which will prevent water loss Seeds will also provide embryos with nourishment for the developing plant Transporting materials through the plant As plants get taller, it becomes important for materials made in the leaves be able to reach the roots, and materials absorbed by the roots must reach the leaves Plants will eventually develop vascular tissues to aid in the transport of water and dissolved substances - seedless (use spores that require moist environments)
- no vascular tissue (small - usually 1-2 cm high)
- often called pioneer plants as they are often the first to colonize an area - they help in accumulating inorganic material on surfaces and can help prevent soil erosion by covering surfaces and absorbing water some examples: Moss growing on a tree trunk A liverwort A hornwort Another moss Moss Structure Sporophyte Gametophyte Capsule Seta Stem & leaves Rhizoids The bulk of the plant, no reproductive organs

Made up of stem, leaves and rhizoids Water, nutrients and sugars pass through stem by diffusion, this limits the plant's height

the leaves lack a cuticle, and are often only one cell thick, which helps in water absorption anchor the plant to the ground When a moss becomes spore bearing, it is referred to as a sporophyte. holds the sporangium up high

water, sugars, amino acids and other nutrients are diffused through the seta to the capsule site of spore production (also called sporangium)

up to 50 million spores can be produced in one capsule Moss Lifecycle Note: the sperm must be carried into the archegonium by the wind Vascular plants Phylum Lycophyta Sometimes called club mosses, though they have vascular tissues and are therefore not true mosses They provide clues to the origin of other land plants that have vascular systems Phylum Pterophyta (Ferns) Rhizoids underground stems that anchor the plant and absorb water and nutrients Frond Mature leaf
spores may be found under the leaf Fiddlehead A New leaf Seeds Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta only one existing species of this phylum - ginkgo biloba Gnetophyta Coniferophyta Flowers -while gymnosperms can take up to 10 years to produce a seed bearing offspring, flowering plants can do so in one year -fruits help protect seeds and help with dispersal -usually have a more efficient vascular system flowering plants and animals have co-evolved as a result of mutualist symbiosis fertilization is often aided by insects a UV photo of a flower reveals what an insect sees
flowers will reward pollen transporters with nectar seed dispersal is aided by animals a bird picks up a berry, eats it and will deposit the seed with fertilizer in a new area
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