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Transcript of Syntax
Certain patterns emerge.
Exist a finite set of rules that provide a tree for any sentence in the language.
Phrase structure rules make explicit speakers' knowledge of the order of words and the grouping of them. “The Relationship between Phrase Structure Rules and Phrase Structure Trees”
•It refers to the way that sentences must be analysed.
•Phrases and sentences can be represented by trees.
•Trees can be represented by phrase structure rules.
•The syntactic category immediately beneath it must agree with the phrase structure rules. Heads and complements -Relationship between the head of a phrase and the other members of the phrase.
-Phrasal categories and their heads
-The head-complement relation is universal. However, the order of these two constituents may change Syntactic Categories A family of expressions that can substitute for one another without loss of grammatically is called syntactic category. We have:
Noun phrase (NP): Often containe some form of a noun or proper noun, but may consist of a pronoun alone, or even containe a clause or a sentence.
Verb Phrase (VP): Always contain a Verb (V) and thay may contain other categories, such as noun phrase or prepositional phrase.
Prepositional Phrase (PP): preposition followed by a noun phrase. Phrase structure trees Sentence structure Correct Order
Sentences are strings of words belonging to particular grammatical categories (“parts of speech”) with no internal organization. We know, however, that such “flat” structures are incorrect.
Hierarchical organization; that is, the words are grouped into natural units. The words in the sentence Grammatical or Ungrammatical •By infinity of language we refer to the capacity of language to create limitless sentences.
•This is grammatically possible because of the repetition of categories within categories which allows speakers to use the same syntactic category several times, with different function, in the same sentence.
•Even though language allows us to create endless sentences, our brain capacity is finite, therefore, we are able to store only a finite number of categories and rules for their combination What grammaticality is
not based on The ability to make grammaticality judgments does not depend on having heard the sentences before.
•EG. Enormous crickets in pink socks danced at the prom
•Colorless green ideas sleep furiously
•A verb crumpled the milk
Our unconscious knowledge of the syntactic rules of grammar permits us to make grammaticality judgments. What grammaticality
is based on -Grammaticality judgments are neither idiosyncratic nor capricious, but are determined by rules that are shared by the speakers of a language.
-Sentences are not random strings of words.
-We can fix sentences up to make them grammatical. Certain ambiguous sentences have more than one phrase structure tree, each corresponding to a different meaning. More than one interpretation are possible because the rules of syntax permit different structures for the same linear order of words. Structural Ambiguities Rule that takes a basic structure generated by the phrase structure rules and derives a second tree.
Transformations can move constituents or insert functions words, converting deep structures into surface structures. More phrase structure rules Phrase structure rules
Types of sentences (Auxiliaries, Questions: S/Aux NP VP)
Syntactic knowledge Sentence Relatedness Transformational rules Basic Principles: Constituent Structure and Syntactic Dependencies.
Selection: One kind of dependencies. It depends directly on whether the verb is transitive or intransitive.
What will Max chase?
Transformational Rules: Move Aux, Move WH, Do support. Syntactic dependencies -Signed languages have phrase structure rules that provide hierarchical structure and order constituents.
-Topicalization is the transformation that moves a direct object to the beginning of the sentence.
-The wh- phrase may move or it may remain in its deep structure position. Sign Language syntax •Structure dependency
Omittion of "that"
Transformation of Sentences
Structure dependent rules Syntax, the part of the grammar that represent a speaker's knowledge of sentences and their structure.
Part of what we mean by structure is a word order, the meaning of the sentence depends on the order in which words occur in a sentence.
The grammar of all language includes rules of syntax that reflect speakers' knowledge of theses facts. The Phrase Structure Tree or Constituent Structure Tree is a diagram in the form of an inverted tree with syntactic category information, which shows graphic representations of a speaker’s knowledge of the sentence structure in their language. It provides labels for each node of the tree according to the phrasal constituent
it represents in the sentence.
- Phrasal categories
- Lexical categories
- Functional categories 3 aspects of a syntactic knowledge represented in phrase structure trees:
•Linear order of the words in the sentence
•Grouping of words into syntactic categories
•Hierarchical structure of the syntactic categories 1. Pretty girls whispered softly
2. The cat and the dog were friends
3. The teacher believes that the student knows the answer
-A new phrasal category, and two new lexical categories appear in the tree: Adjective Phrase (AP), Adjective (Adj), and Adverb (Adv).
-The NP in sentence 2, the cat and the dog, is a coordinate structure.
-Sentence 3 contains an embedded sentence.
-The word ‘that’ belongs to the class of complementizers. Here are the phrase structure rules we have discussed so far.
1. S-> NP Aux VP
2. NP-> (Det) (AP) N (PP)
3. VP->V (NP) (PP) (Adv) (CP)
4. PP->P NP
5. AP->Adj (PP)
6. CP->Comp S • Struture dependecy is a principle of Universal Grammar Meaningful words
Ill formed Claudio Avila