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Geography Project

Abin John

on 7 September 2013

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Transcript of Earthquake

After an Earthquake
Keep calm, switch on the transistor radio and obey instructions
Keep away from beaches and low banks of river. A huge wave may sweep in
Expect aftershocks
Turn off the water, gas and electricity
Do not smoke, light match or use a cigarette lighter
Do not turn on switches there may be gas leak or short circuit
Use a torch
If there is any fire, try to put it out or call fire brigade
Immediately clean up any inflammable products that may have spilled
Strength of Earthquake
The intensity and strength of an earthquake is measured on
Richter Scale
,invented by Charles Richter, USA in 1935, which categories earthquake on the basis of energy released.
Earthquake in india
Depending upon the frequency and intensity of the earthquakes, the whole country can be divided into
three broad seismological zones
Himalayan zone
The areas most prone to earthquake in India is the Fold Mountains Ranges of the Himalayan zone. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Bihar, the Bihar- Nepal border and north eastern states come under this zone
The earthquakes in these zones are primarily due to plate tectonics.
The region along the Himalayas where two plates meet is highly earthquake prone and hence known as the
zone of maximum intensity

Indo-Gangetic zone
To the south of the Himalayan zone and running parallel to it is the Indo-Gangetic Zone.
Most of the earthquakes striking this zone are of moderate intensity of 6 to 6.5 on Richter scale.
Therefore this zone is called the
Zone Of Comparative Intensity.
The earthquakes along the foothill are of medium to high intensity. However, the earthquakes of this zone are more harmful due to high density of population in this area.
The Peninsular Zone

Hazardous effects of Earthquake
Topographical Changes
Damage to transport systems
Chances of fire short circuit
Chances of flood
Chances of outburst of epidemic
water pipes, sewers are disrupted
Communications such as telephone wires are damaged
Economic activities are severely affected
Predicting Earthquakes
Unusual animal behaviour
Changes in water level
Temperature change
large scale fluctuations of oil flow from oil wells
foreshocks or minor shocks before major Earthquakes
changes in seismic wave velocity
If you are in a house
Use lift for getting down from building
Be prepared to move with your family
If you are in a shop,school, office or theater
Run for an exit. (Stampede could prove fatal)
Take cover under a desk/table
Move to corner or side walls
Move towards window glass.
Go near electric points and cable.
Keep away from weak portion of the building and false ceiling
If you are in a high-rise building
take protection under a desktable
Rush for exits
stay in the building until the shaking stops
Use elevator
If you are outside
avoid high buildings, walls, power lines and other objects that could fall and create block
don’t run through streets
If possible, move on to an open area away from hazard including trees.
If you are in a vehicle
stop in a safe and open place
Move outside the vehicle
close windows, doors and vents
The peninsular India has presumably remained a stable landmass and only few earthquakes have been experienced in this region. This region is, therefore, called the
zone of minimum intensity.
But the sever earthquakes of
Konya (1967)
Latur (1993)
Jabalpur (1997)
have raised doubts about the seismic stability of this landmass.
What causes Earthquakes???
Folding and faulting
A fault is defined as a fracture plane along which the rocks have been displaced. There are vertical as well as horizontal displacements. Earthquakes are caused due to sudden movements of rocks along faults. Such earthquakes are called tectonic earthquakes.
Anthropogenic Factors
Human interference with nature causes artificial earthquakes.
The underground testing of H-bombs can result in artificial earthquakes. Such earthquakes can be compared with a shallow volcanic earthquake.
Plate Tectonics
There are 7 large and 12 small plates which are in continuous motion.
These plates move along three distinctive types of boundaries, that is :
Convergent boundaries
: where plates push each other and one plate slides down the other one
Divergent boundaries
: where plates pull away from each other.
Transformed boundaries
: where plates slide past each other.
The plate tectonic theory is the most convincing and widely accepted
Volcanic explosions are certainly the most common cause of earthquakes in the neighbourhood of active volcanoes. Such earthquakes are, therefore, known as volcanic earthquakes.
Volcanic activities
Red Group

Major Earthquakes in India
August 15, 1950
Magnitude - 8.5
deaths -1,526
Location -Tibetan plateau
(Arunachal Pradesh - China border), India
Magnitude - 9.0-9.3
deaths -2,83,106
Location -off west coast northern Sumatra India Sri Lanka Maldives
The Earthquake resulted in a Tsunami causing mass destruction and indiscriminate deaths
December 26, 2004
What is a Tsunami??
A Tsunami is a violent disturbance deep below the Earth's surface
Underwater earthquakes and subduction zones are the most common causes

When an oceanic plate hits a continental plate the plates press together and pressure builds.
Eventually the heavier oceanic plate slips under the lighter continental plate and causes an earthquake.
The earthquake lifts part of the ocean up and drops other parts down.
The gravity acts fast to even out the water’s surface. The seismic energy created that big wave and it doesn’t just disappear. Waves start moving up to 600 miles per hour.
The Tsunami extends thousands of feet deep into the ocean.
Tsunamis carry lots of water and energy. So they can travel very far.
Magnitude -7.6/7.7
Deaths -20,000
Location -Kutchh (Gujarat)
January 26, 2001
Magnitude -7.6
Deaths - >80,000
Location -Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Pakistan
October 8, 2005
We cannot stop earthquakes, but we can learn more, in hopes of discovering ways to protect ourselves from them.
If a building is being constructed in a city that has experienced earthquakes, new plans and building materials should be used to strengthen the building. Recently, materials like this have been invented, such as a combination of steel and rubber plates on buildings to absorb the shock of the earthquake.
Another easy safety thing for earthquakes is for the government of a city to invest in a proper seismograph centre, and make sure there is always at least one person monitoring it in case of an earthquake.
Simple precautions are the most effective way to minimize earthquake damage.
Thank U!!!
Earthquake is a violent tremor in the earth’s crust, sending out a series of shock waves in all directions from its place of origin or epicenter.
Earthquakes constitute one of the worst natural hazards which often turn into disaster causing widespread destruction and loss to human life.

Loss of life and property
Damage to infrastructure
Earthquake Safety Rules
Group Members
Abin John
Sampreet Priyadarshan
Davin Kolengadan
Augustin Vembil
Emmanuel Sabu
Paulvin Paul
Zen K.S
Joshua Davy
Annmaria Jose
Merin N.S
Priyanka baby
Sneha Shaji
Full transcript